Once again, let me provide an
explanation regarding citations:
A citation is nothing more than
a way to inform the reader (i.e. me) where you obtained your information
from. That is, what source did you use to answer the question.
For example, if the question
asks you, "What are the elements of a contract?", and you find the
answer in your textbook on page 31, you would cite to the book (following
correct rules of citation) with the page number (i.e. 31).
Legal Studies students would
cite according to the Bluebook,
so the citation would look like this:
Author, Title, Page(s) (edition
if applicable followed by year).
So, to cite to the textbook, the
citation would look like this:
Martin A Frey and Phyllis
Hurley Frey, Introduction to the Law of Contracts, 31 (4th Ed.
Notice the way the authors’
names are written, the title is in italics, the edition and year are inside
parentheses, and the citation is closed with a period. If the answer was found
on several pages, then you’d put them like this (for example): 31 – 33. Or if
it was found on sporadic pages, you’d put it like this: 31, 45-47, 50. This
means that I referred to pages 31, 45-47, and 50 to obtain the information
needed to draft my response.
The example provided above is
called the full citation sentence and it follows Bluebook. If you refer to the
website I suggested, it is all there, with clear examples. This is the direct
link that shows how to cite to a textbook: http://www.law.cornell.edu/citation/2-700.htm.
The Cornell website provides
examples on how to cite to every single possible source you can use. It is not
easy, but this must be mastered. You’ve got to spend several hours a week
reading through the citation manuals just to familiarize yourself with these
rules. The websites offer all the guidance you need, without ever having to use
the citation rule books. Trust me, this is a huge advantage over the “Dark
Ages” when we had to literally flip through hundreds of pages just to find the
format for citing a book.
Please note, CJ and Business
students will have citations that look different because they follow APA (assistance can be found
The format for a citation to
a book is:
Author, A. A. (Year of
publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for
subtitle. Location: Publisher.
So the citation to a textbook looks like this:
Frey, M and Frey, P
(2008). Introduction to the Law of Contracts. Clifton Park,
NY: Delmar Cengage Learning, 31.
For APA (or law review rules
for the Bluebook), you must create a "Reference" page, which is a
list, in alphabetical order, of all sources used and referred to in your
paper / essay. This goes at the end of your paper. You must then place
"in-text" citations that will refer to the references listed in your
"Reference" page. For example, let's say you found the elements of a
contract on page 31, this is how your response might read:
The most important elements of
a contract are offer, acceptance, and consideration (Frey, 2008).
Or, you can write it like this:
According to Frey (2008), the
most important elements of a contract are offer, acceptance, and consideration.