This assignment is worth 9% of your course total mark.

NOTE: You MUST show all calculation steps, and when necessary, explain why you are taking those steps. If your steps are correct but you arrive at an incorrect answer, you will still earn some points.

⦁ Assume that 8 people out of a community of 800 are ill with disease X, and the horizontal lines in the diagram below represent duration of illness in those 8 people.

Calculate the following measures:

⦁ Point prevalence of the disease on July 1

⦁ Point prevalence of the disease on August 1

⦁ Period prevalence of the disease during July

⦁ Incidence rate of the disease in July

⦁ In city X, 1812 individuals developed prostate cancer in 2012. Population of the city was estimated to be 2,210,600 on July 1, 2012. Calculate the incidence rate (per 10,000) for prostate cancer for the city.

Hint: Except in extreme cases, for example is the case of a city where a lot of males have been killed in the war, or in a small city built close to a mine where most people are miners, you can always assume that numbers of males and females are almost equal. This is due to the fact that when a sperm attaches to an egg, there is exactly 50% chance that the sperm carries female genes and 50% chance that it carries male genes.

Hint2: Note that some diseases can only develop in one gender.

⦁ In a study on incidence rate of disease X, that involved observing 8 participants over 5 years, 2 of the participants died after 2 years, one quit the study after 3 years, and one became ill with disease X after 4 years. How many person-years of observation were done at the end of the study?

⦁ A prevalence study in 2012 identified 2,320 cases of malaria in a city of 3.3 million people in Asia. If the incidence rate is 12 per 100,000 persons per year, what percentage of the 2,320 cases were newly developed in 2012?

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