Complete the following exercises located at the end of each chapter and put them into a Word document to be submitted as directed by the instructor.

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Complete the following exercises located at the end of each chapter and put them into a Word document to be submitted as directed by the instructor.

Show all relevant work; use the equation editor in Microsoft Word when necessary.

 

1.      Chapter 16,

16.9,

Given the aggression scores below for Outcome A of the sleep deprivation experiment, verify that, as suggested earlier, these mean differences shouldn’t be taken seriously by testing the null hypothesis at the .05 level of significance. Use the computation formulas for the various sums of squares and summarize results with an ANOVA table.

 

HOURS OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION

 

 

ZERO

TWNTY-FOUR

FORTY-EIGHT

 

 

3

4

2

 

 

5

8

4

 

 

7

6

6

 

GROUP MEAN

5

6

4

GROUP MEAN =5

 

16.10,

Another psychologist conducts a sleep deprivation experiment. For reasons beyond his control, unequal numbers of subjects occupy the different groups. (Therefore, when calculating  in SSbetween and SSwithin, you must adjust the denominator term, n, to reflect the unequal numbers of subjects in the group totals.

(a)    Summarize the results with an ANOVA table. You need not do a step-by-step hypothesis test procedure.

HOURS OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION

ZERO

TWENTY-FOUR

FORTY-EIGHT

1

4

7

3

7

12

6

5

10

2

 

9

1

 

 

 

(b) If appropriate, estimate the effect size with η2.

(c) If appropriate, use Tukey’s HSD test (with  = 4 for the sample size, n) to identify pairs of means that contribute to the significant F, given that  = 2.60,  = 5.33, and  = 9.50.

(d) If appropriate, estimate effect sizes with Cohen’s d.

(e) Indicate how all of the above results would be reported in the literature, given sample standard deviations of  = 2.07,  = 1.53, and  = 2.08.

 

16.12

For some experiment, imagine four possible outcomes, as described in the following ANOVA table.

A

SOURCE

SS

df

MS

F

 

Between within     Total

900       8000    8,900

3               80             83

300          100

3

B

SOURCE

SS

df

MS

F

 

Between within     Total

1500     8000     8900

3          80        83

500          100

5

C

SOURCE

SS

df

MS

F

 

Between within      Total

300        8000      8300

3          80        83

100          100

 

D

SOURCE

SS

df

MS

F

 

Between within     Total

300              400         700

3             4            7

100          100

 

 

(a) How many groups are in Outcome D?

(b) Assuming groups of equal size, what’s the size of each group in Outcome C?

(c) Which outcome(s) would cause the null hypothesis to be rejected at the .05 level of significance

(d) Which outcome provides the least information about a possible treatment effect?

(e) Which outcome would be the least likely to stimulate additional research?

(f) Specify the approximate p-values for each of these outcomes.

16.14

The F test describes the ratio of two sources of variability: that for subjects treated differently and that for subjects treated similarly. Is there any sense in which the t test for two independent groups can be viewed likewise?

2.      Chapter 17,

 

17.6,

Return to the study first described in Question 16.5 on page 308, where a psychologist tests whether shy college students initiate more eye contacts with strangers because of training sessions in assertive behavior. Use the same data, but now assume that eight subjects, coded as A, B, . . . G, H, are tested repeatedly after zero, one, two, and three training sessions. (Incidentally, since the psychologist is interested in any learning or sequential effect, it would not make sense—indeed, it’s impossible, given the sequential nature of the independent variable—to counterbalance the four sessions.) The results are expressed as the observed number of eye contacts:

WORKSHOP SESSIONS

SUBJECT

ZERO

ONE

TWO

THREE

T subject

A

1

2

4

7

14

B

0

1

2

6

9

C

0

2

3

6

11

D

2

4

6

7

19

E

3

4

7

9

23

F

4

6

8

10

28

G

2

3

5

8

18

H

1

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