PART 1 (10 marks) Atherosclerotic plaque formation
1. Describe the step for the formation of an atherosclerotic in the upper branch of the left coronary artery
· Include in your answer the pathological changes at the level of the artery
· Include in your answer the risk factors that would lead to this plaque formation
Rupture of a plaque in the left coronary artery
2. Differentiate between a stable and unstable plaque.
A stable adequate is blood flow and the symptoms quickly subside without any damage to the heart and dot not tend to form cloth.
A Unstable plaque is restriction of blood flow in the coronary artery,
3. Describe what happens when an unstable plaque rupture
An unstable plaque going to be hemorrhage into the plaque or thrombotic occlusion of the vessel lumen.
4. Describe what happens to the contents of a ruptured plaque of upper branch of the left coronary artery. Where could the contents go?
1. What happens as it progresses through the coronary circulation?
2. What areas of the heart will it affect?
cluding the arteries to the heart.
Hypertension mechanisms and pathophysiology
the risk factors that contribute to hypertension
• Describe how the risk factors contribute to the development of hypertension
salt intake, obesity and insulin resistance, the renin-angiotensin system, and the sympathetic nervous system.
6. How do the various components of the autonomic nervous system influence blood pressure?
· Include in your answer the involvement of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system?
does the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) system influence blood pressure?
Renin is secreted from the juxtaglomerular apparatus of the kidney in response to glomerular under perfusion or a reduced salt intake. It is also released in response to stimulation from the sympathetic nervous system
7. How is the diagnosis of hypertension made?
8. What are the manifestations related to hypertension?
• Include in your answer target-organ damage
do medications act to control blood pressure?
• Include in your answer, what are some non-pharmacological interventions to manage blood pressure, how do they help?