In Scientific Publications, A Reference To A Previous Work (Source) That Is Discussed In The Manuscript Is Called A Citation.

computer science


Question 3 – Citation Style Manager

In scientific publications, a reference to a previous work (source) that is discussed in the manuscript is called a citation. In different scientific disciplines, and sometimes even different journals, different so-called citation styles are used. The citation style defines how a citation is formatted. We will consider two different citation styles in this question:

·         APA style: citation style of the American Psychological Association (, see also Wikipedia page ( This style is widely used in Psychology and Social Sciences.

·         IEEE: citation style of the Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is used in IEEE journals which cover engineering and related disciplines ( See the Learning Materials/Coursework folder on Learning Central for more information on the IEEE style.

There are two main aspects to a publication where citation styles apply:

1. In-text citations: These are used in the text body whenever one refers to, summarises, paraphrases, or quotes from another source. This is an example from Wikipedia ( for a sentence including an in-text citation of a paper by Schmidt and Oh in APA format:

                In our postfactual era, many members of the public fear that the findings of science are not        real (Schmidt & Oh, 2016).

In IEEE format, references are given as numbers in square brackets. Example:

                This is compounded by the fact that the field is evolving from work performed by an       individual that does data science to a team that does data science [1].

2. Reference list: In a scientific publication, the last section is typically the References section, which provides full details on the in-text citations. For instance, the full reference corresponding to the Schmidt & Oh (2016) in-text citation above would be:

                Schmidt, F. L., & Oh, I.-S. (2016). The crisis of confidence in research         findings in           psychology: Is lack of replication the real problem? Or is it        something else? Archives of        Scientific Psychology, 4(1), 32–37.

In an article using IEEE format, every reference in the reference list needs to be numbered:

                1. J. Saltz, "The Need for New Processes Methodologies and Tools to       Support Big Data             Teams and Improve Big Data Project Effectiveness", Big Data Conference, 2015.

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