Obtain the best arrangement to increase the ballistic limit of ‘6’ multi-layered aluminium (Al6061) shields.



1.0        Aim of the project

To create and train a heuristic algorithm to improve the ballistic limit of a multi-layered shield using Matlab and Ansys to obtain the best arrangement for ‘n’ no. of plates. This study aims to determine the energy absorption properties and Backface signature of a material.

2.0        Objectives of the project

The objectives to be met in order to reach the aim of this project are:

·        Obtain the best arrangement to increase the ballistic limit of ‘6’ multi-layered aluminium (Al6061) shields.

·        Obtain the best arrangement to increase the energy absorption capacity of ‘6’ multi-layered aluminium (Al6061) shields. 

·        Obtain the best arrangement to minimise the Backface signature of ‘6’ multi-layered aluminium (Al6061) shields.

·        Reduce the manufacturing costs of aluminium (Al6061) multi-layered shields

3.0        Context of the project

In recent years, the ongoing threat of ammunition and explosively formed projectiles to civil and military structures has increased the need to optimise protective structures. (E.A. Flores-Johnson, 2011) There is an increased risk due to vast development in the manufacturing and technology of the projectiles which has raised concern to yield better armours and shields.

Aluminium alloys have been the primary material of choice for the production of the fuselage, wing and other supporting structure for the commercial airliners and military cargo and transport since about 1930. (E.A.StarkeJr., 1996) Although, polymer matrix composites are used in the high-performance military aircraft Aluminium alloy is still the best choice for commercial and cargo transportation which makes this topic a subject of intensive research due to increased crime and violence in the world. 

Multi-layered shields are used in different places like School windows and doors, High Commissions and Embassies and other organisations where security and confidentiality are top priorities. These shields are also used to manufacture storage safes and a lot of other safety tools which makes it critical to further research and develop the technology.

Although there are a lot of studies dealing with Ballistic response of multi-layered shields, their scope is limited when it comes to Aluminium Al6061 alloy with a spherical projectile. Hence it remains an open research topic since conclusive results of its effectiveness have not been obtained to date.

This project makes a key contribution to the multi-layered shields technology. It helps to improve the technology by explaining the energy absorption effects of Aluminium Al6061 alloy and also creates the best arrangement for the plates to improve the ballistic limit whilst minimising the backface signature effects. 


In this project,

1.     The material used is Aluminium alloy Al6061.

2.     The shape of the projectile is spherical.

3.     maximum of 6 plates will be used to match the total thickness.



1)     This project does not include the practical testing of the configuration obtained for Aluminium Al6061 multi-layered shield. Results and conclusion solemnly rely on the 3-D Numerical simulations performed using Ansys.

2)     A particular ballistic threat with a spherical velocity and response of a multi-layered Aluminium Al6061 shield with a maximum of 6 plates to match the total thickness have been studied.

4.0        Background to the project

4.1            Introduction

This project includes detailed analytical, numerical and simulated investigation to illuminate changes of the order of the plates of different thickness on the ballistic performance of aluminium shields at high-speed impact and studies dealing with analytical methods for the optimization of multi-layered aluminium shields.

   Important features of this project are that

·        It gives a detailed explanation and simulation results of a high-speed spherical projectile impact response on a multi-layered aluminium shield with changing the order of the plates. Although, there are many studies available on Ballistic impact response none of them covers the response of aluminium with a spherical projectile which makes this topic open for further research.

·        This study will help reduce the manufacturing cost of multi-layered shields by educating manufacturers on the best arrangement for the shield and also reducing the material used. The project also focuses on keeping the cost minimum during the testing phase of multi-layered shields as it helps a lot to reduce overall the cost of the product. It focuses on delivering the testing results as quick as possible to minimise the time consumption.    

·        Results from the analysis carried out will be helpful to understand the behaviour of aluminium multi-layered shields when stroked against spherical projectiles as it provides a detailed explanation and 3-D figures and numerical simulations.

·        It helps to increase the strength of the components made out of aluminium alloys like an aircraft fuselage, wings and many other parts by providing a better arrangement of multi-layered shields which can be used by manufacturers to produce better designs and structures. 

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