Effect of Self-efficacy, Motivation and Anxiety on Online Academic Performance
Modern technological advances and accessibility to the Internet have led to an increase in online learning compared with traditional learning environments. Online learning offers learning experiences with technology, which provides accessibility, connectivity, flexibility, and ability to promote interactions among learners. As the number of online-learning users continues to increase, there is a need to understand how students can best apply learning strategies to achieve academic success within the online environment. Self-efficacy has come to the research driven conclusion that it is the belief in one’s capabilities to organize and execute the requisite actions required to produce particular results.
Self-efficacy determines level of motivation as reflected in the amount of effort exerted in an effort and the time devoted to a challenging situation. If persons have a low level of self-efficacy toward a task, they are less likely to exert effort and accomplish the task. Research findings have demonstrated that self-efficacy is a better predictor of academic achievement than other cognitive or affective processes. Therefore, self-efficacy is critical to learning and performance (Hodges, 2008). Student self-efficacy seems particularly important in challenging learning environments, such as an online learning one where students lack opportunities to interact with others and as a result can become socially isolated. Also, the drop-out rate among students in online learning environments is higher than that in traditional learning environments. Drop-out rate is also related with a lack of self-efficacy (Bates & Khasawneh, 2007).Understanding self-efficacy in online learning is critical to improving online education, which can be a key component of academic success in distance education.
It refers to “beliefs in one’s capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to produce given attainments” (Bandura, 1997). Dependency directly influences the self-efficacy level on using online technologies in controlling the online learning experiences. Independent students have generally preferred online technology for their learning to create a significant impact on their self-efficacy level, whereas dependent students have not got the chance to select online technologies for their learning process that also adversely impact their self-efficacy (Monica DeTure, 2004). Self-efficacy is believed to be a key component in successful online learning; however, most existing studies of online self-efficacy focus on the computer.
In the following study the researcher studies the aspects of motivation using the scale give Vallerand et al(1992) which follows the tenets of self determination theory that has 3 aspects of motivation intrinsic,extrinsic and amotivation. According to the findings given by Deci and Ryan’s (1985, 2000) construct of intrinsic motivation into three unordered subscales: intrinsic motivation for knowledge, intrinsic motivation toward accomplishments, and intrinsic motivation for stimulation. By contrast, there are three subscales of extrinsic motivation: identified regulation, introjected regulation, and extrinsic regulation. Lastly, amotivation which assesses the experience of a lack of motivation.
Studies indicated that academic achievement of students has lessened as a result of increasing the levels of state-trait anxiety (Endler, Kantor & Parker, 1994; Batumlu & Erden, 2007). At this point it is an important question to answer which kinds of anxiety increase during the learning process.
Online Academic Performance
Through the online learning process, students can access the given information of teachers at any time on the respective online platform. It is comparatively more convenient in the current situation, because of the pandemic; every educational institute follows this learning method for properly giving education or lessons to their students. However, like the traditional process of learning, online classes must start within the given timeframe. Students must follow this while gaining lessons through an online learning environment. Because of technical problems, sometimes online classes may be postponed, which negatively impact on the students’ motivation and eagerness of learning (Shea & Bidjerano, 2010).