Hall’s (2008) literature review section includes previously published studies.



Hall’s (2008) literature review section includes previously published studies. Use to note similarities among sources: Kuh (2008) and Pike (2008) both rely on results collected from the NSSE survey. Notes that Paraphrase Use for recording specific information that does not require exact quotation. Written in your own words and sentence structure, but may use words or phrases taken directly from the author if set in quotation marks and attributed. Writer must comprehend original in order to “translate” into paraphrase. Retain similar length and order of ideas as original. Use for sources that provide detailed conclusions, theories, and speculation. Example: One of the questions Pike’s study (2008) sought to answer focused not just on how student employment influenced grades, but whether number of hours worked and place of employment influenced grades (564). Notes that Quote Use to copy exact words from source. All quotations must be enclosed by quotation marks. Reserve for special purposes: when a source is vivid or expressive, when the meaning is lost in paraphrase, when the speaker is a recognized authority. 

Use quotes sparingly in notes (and later in paper) or they lose effectiveness. Quotations must be introduced by a signal phrase (see page 499) that identifies both the context and speaker. Integrate and Acknowledge Sources into your Essay (and outline) -To Avoid Plagiarism -To guide Reader -To acknowledge Work of Scholars APA Requires Two Pieces of Information: (see Chapter 28, pages 528-535) -Author and Date (Author, Date) (Smith, 2006). Citations (whether in-text or parenthetical) must be -Unobtrusive -Complete -Minimal What Requires Acknowledgement? -Quotations -Summaries, paraphrases -Opinions, Judgments, Insight, Theory -Illustration, Photo, Charts, Graphs -Most evidence used to prove thesis What does Not Require Citation? -Common knowledge (define) -What is found in general reference sources. -What is known by educated adults. Use Signal Phrase to alert reader when summarizing, paraphrasing, and quoting. According to Stephen Ambrose (1999). . . . . . -Name and Date as close to source material as possible. -Use shortened titles in-text if you have no author -Do not include URLs in text -See page 499 for a list of signal phrases. Plummer (2001) indicates that . . . . Use of parenthetical note: This pressure to conform to recognized masculine norms typically begins at a very young age, and boys may tell each other to toughen up or to stop acting like a baby (Plummer, 2001). Specific page cited: Plummer (2001) argues that an overt pressure to conform to recognized norms of masculinity typically begins at a very young age, with boys discouraging one another from being “soft” or “artistic” (p. 18). Include all three types of borrowing (summary, paraphrase, and quotation) when appropriate: ➢ Quote when the language of the source is memorable and has more impact than a paraphrase or summary would. ➢ Paraphrase to incorporate another’s ideas and details while preserving a consistent tone or level of technicality or formality in your work. ➢ Summarize when you want to mention another’s work but do not need to elaborate on it. A signal phrase couple’s the author’s last name with a signal verb to ➢ Indicate a borrowed idea or quotation. ➢ Suggest the author’s intent or position. ➢ Where appropriate, couple the signal phrase with a brief explanation of the context of the borrowed material, indicating the role of the author in the research conversation or the significance of the borrowing to the source’s claims or support. Download Attachments: Kuh et al. Unmasking the effects.pdf Pike et al. First-Year Students’ Employment.pdf

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