iPSCs are a type of stem cell-like embryonic stem cell, which are made from mature somatic cells These cells can be differentiated into all body tissue [1]



Induced pluripotent stem cells

Abstract :  

Introduction :

iPSCs are a type of stem cell-like embryonic stem cell, which are made from mature somatic cells These cells can be differentiated into all body tissue [1]. The first paper was published in 2006 by Takahashi and Yamanaka, after which many researchers turned to this area for its importance [2]. A Desirable feature of human iPSCs is the ability to acquire them from adult patients to make a study on it and determine the cellular basis of human disease [3].In 2007, scientist Takahashi and his colleagues were able to apply the experiment on human fibroblasts and that by introducing a few factors, human induced pluripotent stem cells could be generated. At the same time, Yamanaka s group also reported that reached the same result but with a different set of factors [4]. Some of these factors are (Oct3 / 4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc) Which is highly reliable in the production of induced stem cells, and their over-expression can induce pluripotency in human somatic cells [5]. there are slight differences in chromatin structure and gene expression between human Embryonic cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, indicating that ES cells and iPSCs are nearly identical cell types [6]. a short time ago, it was assumed that human induced pluripotent stem cells (HiPSCs) would act like their embryonic equivalent in respect to their tumorigenicity. However, some evidence points to that there are important genetic differences between these two cell types, which seem to affect their tumorigenicity [7]. With age, chronic diseases begin to appear, especially cardiovascular and nervous diseases, some of which are difficult to treat with a new drug. Patient induced stem cells can easily treat these diseases [8]. Metabolism is essential for every side of cell function, but the metabolism of iPSCs is still mostly undetected, HiPSCs share a multicellular metabolic signature with  ESCs, characterized by changes in metabolites involved in cellular respiration [9]. Candidate compounds are tested in the human or animal model, with often disappointing results. but, some of these experiments achieve success, drugs such as the kinase inhibitor sorafenib (Nexavar), and several drugs targeting G protein-coupled receptors, such as olanzapine (Zyprexa) [10].


Reference :

[1]      K et al., “Epigenetic memory in induced pluripotent stem cells,” Nature, vol. 467, no. 7313, pp. 285–290, 2010.

[2]      D. A. Robinton and G. Q. Daley, “The promise of induced pluripotent stem cells in research and therapy,” Nature, vol. 481, no. 7381, pp. 295–305, 2012, doi: 10.1038/nature10761.

[3]      P. Hou et al., “Pluripotent stem cells induced from mouse somatic cells by small-molecule compounds,” Science (80-. )., vol. 341, no. 6146, pp. 651–654, 2013.

[4]      S. Yamanaka, “Induced pluripotent stem cells: past, present, and future,” Cell Stem Cell, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 678–684, 2012.

[5]      R.-J. Su et al., “Efficient generation of integration-free ips cells from human adult peripheral blood using BCL-XL together with Yamanaka factors,” PLoS One, vol. 8, no. 5, p. e64496, 2013.

[6]      R. Lister et al., “Hotspots of aberrant epigenomic reprogramming in human induced pluripotent stem cells,” Nature, vol. 471, no. 7336, pp. 68–73, 2011.

[7]      U. Ben-David and N. Benvenisty, “The tumorigenicity of human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells,” Nat. Rev. Cancer, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 268–277, 2011.

[8]      M. Bellin, M. C. Marchetto, F. H. Gage, and C. L. Mummery, “Induced pluripotent stem cells: the new patient?,” Nat. Rev. Mol. cell Biol., vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 713–726, 2012.

[9]      A. D. Panopoulos et al., “The metabolome of induced pluripotent stem cells reveals metabolic changes occurring in somatic cell reprogramming,” Cell Res., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 168–177, 2012.

[10]    M. Grskovic, A. Javaherian, B. Strulovici, and G. Q. Daley, “Induced pluripotent stem cells—opportunities for disease modelling and drug discovery,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov., vol. 10, no. 12, pp. 915–929, 2011.


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