What are the advantages and disadvantages of formative and summative evaluation?
Kirkpatrick’s Evaluation Model is the leading model used in TD program evaluation (page 252). Kirkpatrick’s Evaluation Model has four evaluation levels: Reaction, learning, behavior, and results. A flaw in the initial Kirkpatrick Evaluation Model was the exclusion of return on investment (ROI), which has subsequently been added as a fifth level to the model.
The author introduces another evaluation model in Table 6.1 outlining six evaluation outcomes indicating its corresponding Kirkpatrick Level. Tables 6.2–6.5 give examples of questions to assess each of the outcomes presented in Table 6.1.
When evaluating a training program, an initial step is to determine what level of learning you want to assess, then to determine how to best assess that level of learning. What data collection will be used? Learning level data collection is addressed in Table 6.1 under “Measure Methods” and covered in more detail in the following pages.
Training evaluations are frequently conducted on the level one, reactions outcome, and much less frequently on the level four, results outcome (see Figure 6.3). Why would organizations use more level one reactions evaluation than level four results evaluations?