Oceans comprise two third part of the earth. It has got much importance in research perspective from the past few years.




Oceans comprise two third part of the earth. It has got much importance in research perspective from the past few years. UWSNs are used in water for different applications such as monitoring different areas for security surveillance, monitoring pollution and sensing specific area for resources,such as oil extraction etc. In UWSNs, acoustic signal is usually preferred over radio signal. The performance of radio signal in water is poor as compared to acoustic signals. However the use of acoustic signals in UWSNs imposes few challenges. In general, acoustic signals have limited bandwidth because of high absorption factor and attenuation. Similarly, propagation delay of acoustic signals is longer than radio signals.[4] In UWSNs, maximizing network lifetime is important as replacement of batteries in such environment is very expensive. The routing protocols have an important role in designing network model. In UWSNs, routing protocol plays an important role for efficient flow of data from source to destination. In UWSNs, design of efficient routing protocol is a challenging task because of harsh environment, noises, pollution, temperature etc. The design of efficient routing protocol in UWSNs takes different parameters into account. To maximize network lifetime, routing protocol must take into account efficient utilization of energy. During transmitting a packet the consumption of energy is more than receiving a packet. A node can transmit a packet directly to the base station (BS) or adopt multi-hop transmission. Similarly a node consumes more energy when transmitting a packet at longer distance. A routing protocol is efficient if it reduces number of transmissions and also divide load of work equally among all the nodes. In this work, we have designed a routing protocol that uses cluster based approach. In cluster based approach all nodes first compete for election to be a CHs. Then selection of CHs occurs for optimal number of CHs formation. The selection of CHs occurs on the basis of distance. We have used the concept of clustering in our routing protocol to increase the stability period of the network. Nodes are deployed randomly in a particular area. They start broadcasting their status with each other . For the formation of CHs first election procedure occurs in which eligible candidate set are made on basis of random number (Rnd).For each node Rnd is generated. If this Rnd is greater than threshold value (Th), then the node is considered to be a normal node else the node elected is a CH. Similarly if distance among elected CHs is greater than 20 meter it is selected as a CHs else considered to be a normal node. Adaptive association of normal nodes with these CHs are carried out which results in the formation of balanced clusters. The nodes start transmission with their respective CHs. No back propagation increases network life 2016 IEEE 30th International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications 1550-445X/16 $31.00 © 2016 IEEE DOI 10.1109/AINA.2016.168 506 time and local communication lowers energy consumption. The rest of paper is organized as: section II provide related work, motivation is provided in section III, in section IV we discuss our proposed scheme, in V results and discussion is provided in detail, the Performance trade off is discussed in VI and last section is concluded with future work and conclusion. 

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