Oceans comprise two third part of the earth. It has
got much importance in research perspective from the
past few years. UWSNs are used in water for different
applications such as monitoring different areas for security
surveillance, monitoring pollution and sensing specific
area for resources,such as oil extraction etc.
In UWSNs, acoustic signal is usually preferred over radio
signal. The performance of radio signal in water is poor as
compared to acoustic signals. However the use of acoustic
signals in UWSNs imposes few challenges. In general,
acoustic signals have limited bandwidth because of high
absorption factor and attenuation. Similarly, propagation
delay of acoustic signals is longer than radio signals.
In UWSNs, maximizing network lifetime is important as
replacement of batteries in such environment is very
expensive. The routing protocols have an important
role in designing network model. In UWSNs, routing
protocol plays an important role for efficient flow of
data from source to destination. In UWSNs, design of
efficient routing protocol is a challenging task because
of harsh environment, noises, pollution, temperature etc.
The design of efficient routing protocol in UWSNs takes
different parameters into account. To maximize network
lifetime, routing protocol must take into account efficient
utilization of energy. During transmitting a packet the
consumption of energy is more than receiving a packet.
A node can transmit a packet directly to the base station
(BS) or adopt multi-hop transmission. Similarly a node
consumes more energy when transmitting a packet at
longer distance. A routing protocol is efficient if it reduces
number of transmissions and also divide load of work
equally among all the nodes.
In this work, we have designed a routing protocol that
uses cluster based approach. In cluster based approach
all nodes first compete for election to be a CHs. Then
selection of CHs occurs for optimal number of CHs
formation. The selection of CHs occurs on the basis of
distance. We have used the concept of clustering in our
routing protocol to increase the stability period of the
network. Nodes are deployed randomly in a particular
area. They start broadcasting their status with each other .
For the formation of CHs first election procedure occurs in
which eligible candidate set are made on basis of random
number (Rnd).For each node Rnd is generated. If this
Rnd is greater than threshold value (Th), then the node is
considered to be a normal node else the node elected is
a CH. Similarly if distance among elected CHs is greater
than 20 meter it is selected as a CHs else considered to be
a normal node. Adaptive association of normal nodes with
these CHs are carried out which results in the formation of
balanced clusters. The nodes start transmission with their
respective CHs. No back propagation increases network life
2016 IEEE 30th International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications
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time and local communication lowers energy consumption.
The rest of paper is organized as: section II provide
related work, motivation is provided in section III, in section
IV we discuss our proposed scheme, in V results and
discussion is provided in detail, the Performance trade off
is discussed in VI and last section is concluded with future
work and conclusion.