## Suppose the pictured processor has added, along with the carry flag, a flag to indicate if the output of the ALU is 0 and a flag to indicate if the output of the ALU is positive or negative.

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EMBEDDED SYSTEM

1.    Suppose the pictured processor has added, along with the carry flag, a flag to indicate if the output of the ALU is 0 and a flag to indicate if the output of the ALU is positive or negative. Write a program to input and store three integers, I, J, and X. Include a subroutine to compute I + J and I - J. Then in the main program do the following: if X > 0, output I + J. If X < 0, output I – J. If X = 0, output 0.

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2.    a. Construct a truth table for a “full subtractor”. Then write a complete, well-documented Verilog program to implement your subtractor.

b. Write a thorough but efficient testbench for your subtractor program.

3.    a. Write a Verilog program to implement the pictured fsm. Assume that in S1 the fsm outputs 1, in S2, the fsm output 2, and in S3, the fsm outputs 3. b.    Write a thorough but efficient testbench to test your fsm.

c.    Is this fsm a Moore machine or a Mealey machine? Explain.

4.    a. Compute the sum in each case. Does overflow occur? Why or why not?

i.    011 + 011 =? overflow? Explain.

ii.     111 + 111 =? Overflow? Explain.

iii.    011 + 111=? Overflow? Explain.

b.    If we add 0?? And 1??, what values can be assigned to the unknown digits to give overflow? Explain.

c.    In fixed point notation, what range of values can X represent if X = 011101?

d.    What are the three fields for a number represented in floating point notation?

i.                     _______________________________ ii.________________________________iii.________________________________

e.    For floating point numbers, define NaN.

f.    If you are designing a processor, how will you decide whether or not to include floating point arithmetic?

5.   a. What is the difference between a von Neumann architecture and a Harvard architecture? b. How do you decide which type of architecture in a is best for a given processor?

c. Define the following terms:

i.    Nyquist frequency ii. legacy code

iii. real-time system

iv. trust

6. a. What does CMM stand for and why is it important?

b. Give two methods you could use as part of a “design for testability” strategy.

c.    Give two reasons to use scan testing to test an IC.

d.    What are two safety features which could be included in a traffic light system? Explain.