Understand the normalization process through the first three stages and be able to describe what happens in each step.

computer science


Lectures (Files-->lectures):

  • I308-Module-3-ch-5.pptx
  • I308-Module-3-ch-6.pptx (not required)
  • I308-Module-3-ch-7.pptx

After readings this chapter, you should be able to know these keys below to prepare for this exercise


  • Explain the role of a determinant (key) in a database entity.
  • Explain the types of keys.
  • What are foreign keys meant to do?
  • What does relational algebra have to do with relational databases?
  • Understand the normalization process through the first three stages and be able to describe what  happens in each step.
    • 1NF
    • 2NF
    • 3NF


Normalize this relation below. Take it through the 1NF, 2NF, and 3NF progression.

  • Use MS Word to draw the tables and show the entire set of tables at each step.
  • Express your thought process in a few sentences at each step.

You will need to create primary key and foreign key columns.


This step will be 0NF

petName petBirth petType placeOfPurchase owner
Fido 2007 Dog Pet Supplies Plus John Boyd
Boots 2010 Cat Bob's Pets Elsa Harp
Rover 2010 Dog Pet Supplies Plus Jakko Muttainen
Prince 2018 Fish Wal-Mart John Boyd
Furby 2001 Hamster Pet Supplies Plus Elsa Harp

1NF: First Normal Form – Eliminate repeating data and non-atomic values; add keys
The data is stored in a relation (table) and each attribute (column) contains atomic values. There are no repeating groups of attributes.



2NF: Second Normal Form – Eliminate partial dependencies.
The relation is in first normal form and all the attributes depend on the relation’s unique identifier (primary key).  --All the nonkey columns are dependent on the table’s primary key. (All nonkey attributes are functionally dependent on the entire primary key.)



3NF: Third Normal Form – Eliminate transitive dependencies.
The relation is in second normal form and all of its attributes are not transitively dependent on the unique identifier. ----A table contains only columns that are non-transitively dependent on the primary key (i.e., all nonkey attributes depend only on the primary key)

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