A Proposal to Abolish Grading

general article writing


How to Write a Summary

With thanks to: Swales, John M. and Christine B. Feat. Academic Writing for Graduate Students,

Essential Tasks and Skills. Ann Arbor: U Michigan P, 1994. 105-130.

Preparing to Write: To write a good summary it is important to thoroughly understand the

material you are working with. Here are some preliminary steps in writing a summary.

1. Skim the text, noting in your mind the subheadings. If there are no subheadings, try to

divide the text into sections. Consider why you have been assigned the text. Try to

determine what type of text you are dealing with. This can help you identify important


2. Read the text, highlighting important information and taking notes.

3. In your own words, write down the main points of each section.

4. Write down the key support points for the main topic, but do not include minor detail.

5. Go through the process again, making changes as appropriate.

For example:

Global Implications of Patent Law Variation

A patent is an exclusive right to use

an invention for a certain period of time,

which is given to an inventor as compen-

sation for disclosure of an invention.

Although it would be beneficial for the

world economy to have uniform patent laws,

each country has its own laws designed to

protect domestic inventions and safeguard

technology. Despite widespread variation,

patent laws generally fall under one of two

principles: the first-to-file and first-to-

invent. The first-to-file principle awards a

patent to the person or institution that

applies for a patent first, while the first-to-

invent principle grants the patent to the

person or institution that was first to invent –

and can prove it. Most countries have

adopted the first-to-file system. However,

the United States maintains a first-to-invent

system, despite obvious shortcomings. A

result of countries employing different

patent law principles is inconsistency of

patent ownership.

This first sentence is a general definition. It

may be safe to assume that your audience is

already familiar with patents; thus you do

not have to include it in your summary.

This is the main idea.

The classification of the two principles is


Ignore specific details about the different

principles. The terms are self-explanatory.

It is important to point out that most of the

world follows one system and the United

States another.

Include a description of the problem

surrounding variation in patent laws.

Patent ownership is not recognized

globally. On the contrary, ownership may

change depending on the country. It is not

uncommon for an invention to have two

patent owners – one in the United States and

one in the rest of the world. This unclear

ownership often has economic

consequences. If a company is interested in

using a patented invention, it may be unable

to receive permission from both patent

owners, which in turn may prevent

manufacture of a particular product. Even if

permission is received from both owners,

pay royalties to both may be quite costly. In

this case, if the invention is useful enough, a

company may proceed and pass on the

added cost to consumers.

International economic tension has

also been increasing as a result of differing

policies. Many foreign individuals and

companies believe that they are at a serious

disadvantage in the United States with

regard to patent ownership because of the

logistical difficulties in establishing first-to-

invent status. Further, failure of the United

States to recognize patent ownership in other

countries is in violation of the Paris

Conventions on Industrial Properties, which

requires all member nations to treat all

patents equally. The conflict surrounding

patents has prompted the World Intellectual

Properties Organization (WIPO) to lobby for

universality in patent laws. WIPO maintains

that the first necessary step involves

compelling the United States to reexamine

its patent principle, taking into account the

reality of a global economy. This push may

indeed result in more global economic


Provide some support/explanation for the

problem, but not all the details

Describe this other problem associated with

differing patent principles.

Provide some explanation, but not all the


Describe the action taken to solve the


Writing the Summary:

When writing the summary there are three main requirements:

1. The summary should cover the original as a whole.

2. The material should be presented in a neutral fashion.

3. The summary should be a condensed version of the material, presented in your own


* * Also do not include anything that does not appear in the original. (Do not include your own

comments or evaluation.)


Be sure to identify your source.

For example:

In his paper “Global Implications of Patent Law Variation,” Koji Suzuki (1991) states

that lack of consistency in the world’s patent laws is a serious problem. In most of the world,

patent ownership is given to the inventor that is first to file for a patent. However, the United

States maintains a first-to-invent policy. In view of this, patent ownership can change depending

on the country. Multiple patent ownership can result in economic problems; however, most

striking is the international tension it causes. The fact that the United States does not recognize

patent ownership in other countries, in violation of the Paris Convention on Industrial Properties,

has prompted the World Intellectual Properties Organization (WIPO) to push the United States to

review its existing patent law principles.

Related Questions in general article writing category

The ready solutions purchased from Library are already used solutions. Please do not submit them directly as it may lead to plagiarism. Once paid, the solution file download link will be sent to your provided email. Please either use them for learning purpose or re-write them in your own language. In case if you haven't get the email, do let us know via chat support.