In the 21st century, with an intensely competitive consumer market,
advertisers increasingly used digital technology to call greater attention to
products. In 2009, for example, the world's first video advertisements to be
embedded in a print publication appeared in Entertainment Weekly
magazine. The thin battery-powered screen implanted in the page could
store up to 40 minutes of video via chip technology and automatically
began to play when the reader opened the page.
For an advertisement to be effective, its production and placement must be
based on a knowledge of the public and a skilled use of the media.
Advertising agencies serve to orchestrate complex campaigns whose
strategies of media use are based on research into consumer behavior and
demographic analysis of the market area. A strategy will combine creativity
in the production of the advertising messages with canny scheduling and
placement, so that the messages are seen by, and will have an effect on,
the people the advertiser most wants to address. Given a fixed budget,
advertisers face a basic choice: they can have their message seen or
heard by many people fewer times, or by fewer people many times. This
and other strategic decisions are made in light of tests of the effectiveness
of advertising campaigns.
There is no dispute over the power of advertising to inform consumers of
what products are available. In a free-market economy effective advertising
is essential to a company's survival, for unless consumers know about a
company's product they are unlikely to buy it. In criticism of advertising it
has been argued that the consumer must pay for the cost of advertising in
the form of higher prices for goods; against this point, it is argued that
advertising enables goods to be mass marketed, thereby bringing prices
down. It has been argued that the cost of major advertising campaigns is
such that few firms can afford them, thus helping these firms to dominate
the market; on the other hand, whereas smaller firms may not be able to
compete with larger ones at a national level, advertising at the local level or
online enables them to hold their own.
Finally, it has been argued that advertisers exercise an undue influence
over the regular contents of the media, they employ—the editorial stance of
a newspaper or the subject of a television show. In response, it has been
pointed out that such influence is counteracted, at least in the case of
financially strong media firms, by the advertiser's reliance on the media to
convey a message; any compromise of the integrity of a media firm might
result in a smaller audience for advertising.
Read the complete article about the history of advertising, then complete
the following items.
1 In a complete paragraph of approximately 7 to 10 sentences, write
an objective summary of the article.
2 Based on what you have read, what can you infer about the relationship
between advertising and the price you pay for a product and/or
Please include a direct quote, using proper parenthetical citation,
from the article to support your inference.
Answer the question in 2 to 3 sentences.