Cruise tourism is a vibrant industry that is situated along the vast North American Coast.




Try to avoid the use of contractions, e.g. cannot vs. can’t

Do not use slang ‘screwed’ vs. compromised or swindled or cheated 

Avoid run-on sentences that contain three and four ideas

Choppy and fragmented sentences – a cut and paste approach

Write out the complete name/word reference followed by an acronym; use acronym for remainder of paper

Use authors last name for quotations and/or in-text citations 

English as a second language and nuances of written English – practice/awareness – translated resources

Active vs. passive voice:

Marking and advertising has been an area of business that I have been fascinated with (passive)

Marketing and advertising fascinate me (active).

Redundancy – cull out as many words as you can; never use five words when one word is sufficient

During the last years in Canada the restaurant industry has expanded upon 94,000 restaurant locations across Canada.

Currently, the restaurant industry in Canada has expanded to more than 94,000 locations.          

APA Standards: numbers, punctuation, capitalization (basics)

Regular spacing vs. justified text


Use digital object identifiers (doi) vs. uniform resource locator URLs

Scholarly articles vs. posts and google searches

Reader should be able to access resource simply by clicking on doi and/or using citation


Timelines should be detailed, i.e. week-over-week and term-over-term

Primary vs. secondary research


Research – seeks to validate and/or verify and/or discover knowledge – it does not just report what is already known.

Understanding or gaining insight into a specific topic is a benefit that results from good research but it is not the focus of research


Abstract vs. Introduction


Cruise tourism is a vibrant industry that is situated along the vast North American Coast. For the purpose of this research study, I will explore the cruise ship tourism between Vancouver, British Columbia (BC) and Skagway, Alaska. Two cruise ship lines: Disney and Princess will narrow my study. Disney Cruises run from May to October and are particularly focussed on family travel. Princess Cruises also run from May to October with a focus on scenic adventures and destination travel. Four variables will be included in my study: guest satisfaction, onboard amenities, cost, and destination activities. An online survey will reveal what factors might influence a customers’ choice of cruise line.

W/C 110

Abstract Sample

This Idea Paper defines the topic of my research and anticipates the methodology used to collect data. I declare my bias in the positionality section and reflect upon my confidence in the reflection. Basic supports are noted in the advisory committee and supervisor endorsement sections. A suggested timeline points toward how my research might progress over this term as well as in terms seven and eight. Finally a preliminary list of references are meant to guide my studies as I further explore this research topic. A mind map illustration can be located in Appendix A.

Key Words: Abstract, Sample, Research

W/C 102


What motivates Millennials to eat healthy foods? 

How might social media be used to reach the Boomer and Gen Z consumer market? 

What are the top ten social media marketing practices for small businesses?

How might Millennials experience discrimination in the workplace?

Does tipping keep minimum wage earners well compensated? How?

What key factors determine a traveller’s choice of cruise ship lines? 

What systemic factors underpin a successful First Nations Catering business?

What motivates Millennials to eat healthy foods?


Article Abstract – Online Shopping; In-store Purchases – Reporting Stage

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Internet usage comfort, Internet technical comfort, and demographic variables (gender, age, education, and income) on two key online transactional behaviors: online shopping and online banking. An ordinal regression model was used to test the effects of these variables. Findings show that Internet usage comfort and Internet technical comfort had significant and positive effects on both online shopping and online banking. Among the four demographic variables, only income had a significant and positive effect on online shopping, but both income and age had significant effects on online banking, the former positively and the latter negatively.

KEYWORDS: Internet usage comfort, Internet technical comfort, online shopping, online banking

W/C 116

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