Critically evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of health promotion approaches and methods to reduce the prevalence of contemporary public health issue- Childhood Obesity .
Importance of the public health issue -“Childhood Obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century” (WHO, 2018);”Childhood obesity and excess weight are significant issues for children and their families” (DHSSPS,2015);18% of children are classified as overweight and 9% as obese (Health survey NI,2017-18);A policy-‘A Filter future for all: Framework for preventing and addressing overweight and obesity in Northern Ireland 2012-2022(DHSSPS,2012)
Target population (TP)-Obese children of 9 to 12 years of age.
Way in which health may be perceived by Target population-For this target group, health act as a positive resource for life. Children perceive health as a complex, biological, Psychological, social and spiritual. (Piko and Bak, (2006) children’s perception of health and illness: images and lay concepts in preadolescence, Health education research Theory & practice, Vol.21 (no.5, p.651, 644).Unified view of health- ‘The extent to which an individual or group is able, on the one hand, to realize aspirations and satisfy needs; and, on the other hand, to change or cope with the environment. Health is therefore, seen as a resource for everyday life, not an object of living; it is a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resource, as well as physical capabilities’. (WHO 1984).Children evaluate their own health based on psychosocial health, psychological wellbeing and health related behaviors. (Piko and Bak, (2006) children’s perception of health and illness: images and lay concepts in preadolescence, Health education research Theory & practice, Vol.21 (no.5, p.651).
Determinants of health and their interrelationship for the chosen Target population-Dahlgren and Whitehead, 1991. The factors influencing are Biological, Behavioral, and contextual factors. Biological factors are-maternal malnutrition; Behavioral factors are-Inappropriate infant feeding behavior such as inadequate periods of exclusive breastfeeding, physical activity behavior in early childhood; contextual and wider societal factors include socioeconomic considerations, nutritional literacy within families, availability and affordability of healthy foods, inappropriate marketing of foods to children and families, lack of education and reduced opportunity for physical activity .(World Health Organization(2016) evidence on childhood obesity for the commission on ending childhood obesity ;Geneva, Switzerland)Eating disorders, inadequate family meals pattern, parental obesity, sedentary life style, mothers with low education level and excessive technology use.
Behavior change is required: change to healthy diet and increase in physical activity levels. 1. Theories .HEALTH BELIEF model-people’s faith as to whether they are at risk of a disease and benefits of trying to avoid disease. THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOUR emphasis on behavioral intentions and they are result of attitude towards a behavior, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control.
Focus on: SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY addresses the determinants of health behavior and methods of promoting change. Its constructs include reciprocal determinism, behavioral capability, observational learning, expectations, self efficacy and reinforcement.
2. Approaches: Behavior change, Educational, Empowerment. Behavior change-Key elements-Attitude, behavior change through communication, education, and persuasion. Educational approach-increases knowledge, skills and information. Informed provision through mass media and small groups. Empowerment approach-Help individual to identify health concern and enable them to gain knowledge and skills.
3. MODELS: Elements from approaches. Beattie’s Model-persuasion, personal counseling, education, advice, community development. CAPLAN & HOLLAND-subjective rather than objective information. TONES- education in which people are empowered. Model to focus on: Beattie’s model
Behavior change Therapy-Social Cognitive Theory predict health behavior, offer principles of how to change behavior. This theory covers personal and environmental factors that are observable in childhood obesity.
Health Promotion Approaches- Encourages the TP to adopt a healthy behavior. Increases the literacy of TP by increasing in knowledge and changes in attitude. Empowerment through developing skills.
Health Promotion Model-Emphasis on interventions which target individuals and community