Unit One: Literature Review Annotated Bibliography
Research Question: How does pain management lead to opioid addiction?
Purpose: To explore the risks involved with taking opioids and how patients are being
warned about them.
Conrardy, M., Lank, P., Cameron, K. A., Mcconnell, R., Chevrier, A., Sears, J., . . .
Mccarthy, D. M. (2015, September 01). Emergency department patient perspectives
on the risk of addiction to prescription opioids. Pain Medicine (Malden, Mass.).
The authors, researchers from the Department of Emergency Medicine and Feinberg
School of Medicine, conducted a study to discover Emergency Department patients’
awareness and thoughts about the risk of addiction involved in taking opioids. The
patients were given an opioid prescription for acute pain. They were then called 4-7 days
later to be surveyed on their thoughts and experience. The results show that while a little
more than half (58.7%) of the patients thought of opioids as addictive, the remaining
patients either disagreed or were not sure.
The researchers concluded that people did not
know enough about addiction, but did find that it was something patients feared. While
this is a limited sample and the majority knew opioids could be addictive, findings like
these make it evident that prescribers and other healthcare professionals should discuss
the potential abuse involved with these medications to make patients more aware of the
risks of addiction with opioid prescriptions.
Eckel, F. (2015). Pain Management and the Pharmacist. Pharmacy Times, 81(8), 14.
In this article, Fred Eckel, a professor emeritus at the Eshelman School of Pharmacy,
provides a general overview of the pharmacist’s role in pain management. Eckel suggests
that prescribers are so caught up with healing the pain in the best way possible that they
tend to prescribe the heaviest pain medications, also known as opioids, without trying
less abused medications first. He believes that prescribers need to do a better job in
measuring the level of pain in order to determine if the patient actually needs an opioid.
He touches upon a study finding that 25% of patients who receive an opioid prescription
for the first time proceed to use these medications long-term. To conclude his article, he
suggests ways in which to manage opioid abuse, such as using the Prescription Drug
Monitoring Program (PDMP), which offers an overview tracking record of all of the
controlled substances a patient has filled prescriptions for.