For the programming students, it is always overwhelming for them to differentiate between C++ vs Java. The reason is C++ and Java have lots of similarities. The significant similarities between them is both are object-oriented programming languages. But still, both of these are entirely different languages then each other. It was developed for application and system development.
On the other hand, Java was initially developed for printing systems. But later on, it was developed to support cloud computing. The best part of Java is it. It is built upon the virtual machine. That’s why the programming written in Java is highly secure and portable.
Introduction to C++ language
C++ is the only language that encapsulates the features of both high and low-level language. In the early days of C++, it was known as C with classes. C++ is the object-oriented programming language. It was developed at At&T Bell Labs by Bjarne Stroustrup in the year 1980.
You can code the C language code in an object-oriented style in C++. It was renamed C++ in the year 1983. It can compile 99% of C code without making changes in the source code. C++ is more secure than C.
Introduction to Java language?
Java is one of the most popular programming languages in the world. It was developed in the year 1991 by Sun Microsystems. It was developed by the small team known as the Green team at Sun Microsystem. The first name of Java was OAK.
As I have mentioned earlier, it was initially developed for handling devices and set-top boxes. Oak name didn’t get popular at that time. Thus, they decided to rename the Oak to Java in the year 1996. After a long time, Sun Microsystems acquired by Oracle in the year 2009. Therefore Java is now the product of Oracle. Get Started with the comparison between C++ vs Java:-
C++ vs Java
There is no strict relationship in C++. It means that you do not need to care more about the class name and the file names. The class declaration totally depends on the header file in C++.
On the other hand, there is a strict relationship between the filename and the class name in Java. If you want to use the Payroll class in Java, then your source code needs to be in PayRoll.java. Otherwise, your program will not compile in Java.
Input and outputs
C++ uses the I/O statements. It is located in the IOstream.h file. These statements are cin and cout, e.g. cin>>x; cout<<y;
On the other hand, Java is having the most complex input mechanism because it reads one byte at a time. The input mechanism uses the (System.in), But the output is quite easy i.e., with (System.out). E.g. System.out.println(a);
Compiler and Interpreter
C++ only supports the compiler. On the other hand, Java support both the compiler and interpreter.
Access control and object protection
C++ offers a flexible model where the constant protection available. On the other hand, Java has the cucumber some model, which offers weak encapsulation.
C++ code writes once and can be compiled anywhere. But you can’t run it anywhere. On the other hand, the Java program is written once and can be run anywhere.
There is no root hierarchy in C++. The reason is C++ supports both procedural and object-oriented programming features. There it is also known as the hybrid language.
On the other hand, Java is an object-oriented programming language; thus, it supports the root hierarchy.
The C++ code is not portable. If you want to run it on another machine, then you need to compile it for each platform.
On the other hand, Java code is portable because it translates the code into bytecode. The bycode is accessible on any platform.
C++ offers the destructors feature that is used to destructor the value of the data type in the program. On the other hand, Java provides an automatic garbage collection feature to collect garbage values.
C++ offer the multiple inheritance feature. Multiple inheritance often creates problems. To overcome this problem, C++ offers the keyword virtual feature. On the other hand, Java doesn’t support multiple inheritance feature.
Try and Catch
It is impossible to include the try/ catch function in C++ even if the function throws an exception. On the other hand, exception handling is different in Java. Java doesn’t offer the destructors; thus, you need to define the try and catch within the function.
C++ offers both methods, i.e., the operator overloading methods and overloading methods. On the other hand, Java only supports the overloading method. It doesn’t support operator overloading method.
Run Time Error
In C++, the programmer is responsible for the run time error. In other words, if the program stop running due to the run time error, then the programmer needs to find out the error. On the other hand, in Java, the system is responsible for checking the runtime error in the program.
Pointer, Structure, Union
C++ supports pointer to allocate the location of the data type. It also supports the structure and union to use different types of data set in a single program. On the other hand, Java doesn’t support any of these, and it has different functionality to use these functions.
You can’t do documentation commenting in C++. On the other hand, it is quite easy to do documentation comments in Java using (/**…..*/).
C++ doesn’t support the inbuilt thread support. If you want to do threading in C++, then you need to use the threading libraries. On the other hand, Java has built-in thread support with the class thread. And then override the run method.
In C++, you have to manage the memory manually. There is no memory management in C++. You can do memory management in C++ using memory allocate and deallocate with the help of a new/delete operator. On the other hand, Java has built-in memory management that is system-controlled.
Uses of C++
C++ is a fast and robust language. It makes C++ ideal for developing operating systems. Apart from that, you can also develop low-level languages using C++ with the help of its system-level functions. Some of the parts of Mac OS also written in C++.
Apple is still using C++ for hardware-level programming in its devices. Microsoft has developed most of its software in C++ i.e., Windows 95, ME, 98; XP. Apart from that, Visual studio and Internet explorer also developed in C++.
The browser totally depends on its rendering process. The rendering engine has to be faster to give an unmatched experience to the users while browsing the internet on the browser. C++ is one of the fastest languages in the world, that’s why most of the browsers renders are written in C++. For Example. Firefox and Google Chrome.
Advanced Computation And Graphics
C++ is widely used to program a high-end application that requires high performance. We use it for image processing, real-time simulation, and mobile sensor applications. It is also quite handy to develop a gaming console. Most of the gaming consoles have been developed in C++.
All programming languages depend on the compiler. And almost every language compilers are written in C++. The reason is C++ allows you to code that may close to the hardware. Thus the program written in C++ can utilize the hardware resources more efficiently.
As we have discussed earlier that C++ is used to do hardware-level coding. Most of the embedded systems like Various embedded systems like smartwatches, medical equipment systems are written in C++
Real-Life Use of Java
Java is a widely popular language to create a desktop application. Even more than 75% of desktop applications are written in Java. Java offers the GUI interface, which is quite handy to develop desktop applications. For this, you can use AWT, Swing, and JavaFX in Java.
Most of the business use the server-based application. Java is one of the best programming languages to develop a server-based application. That’s the reason most of the companies use the software that is developed in Java. Java is quite easy to use, and there is no use of pointers. In most of the sectors, Java used in both the front end and the back end.
We also use Java to create web-based applications. Java is the best language to develop web applications because it provides Servlets, Struts, or JSPs to build the best applications.
These technologies help us to create any web application. Apart from that, Java is also offering the applets which work on the webpage on the client-side.
Java is a robust programming language; that is why most of the software developers like to use it. They are using it to write scientific calculations and math operation based applications.
These kinds of applications require additional logic. We can easily develop these kinds of apps, Java. These kinds of apps need low maintenance but high portability. Matlab uses Java to interact with its user interface.
Big Data Technologies
Big Data technologies are getting popular with every growing year. It is the technology that is used to analyze the data and systematically extract data from various sources. In other words, it is the process to convert the most complex data collected from different sources to understandable form.
Java is considering the future of Big Data technologies. One of the major frameworks used with Big Data is Hadoop. And Hadoop is written in Java. Java is offering the feature to establish the data in no time.
Apart from that, its trash gathering and memory management feature making it the best choice for Big Data. Nowadays, more opportunities for Java developers are emerging in Big Data technologies. Hadoop developers are high in demand.
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Conclusion ( C++ vs Java )
A comparison between Java vs C++ now comes to its end. We have seen that C++ and Java is having lots of similarities like they are having almost the same loops, conditional statements, if-else statements, classes, and the objects. It seems to be the same for the students while they learn these languages from scratch.
But as we discussed above, there are some differences between C++ vs Java. Some of the significant differences are pointers, memory management, scope resolution operator, etc. But when we talk about the real-life uses of C++ and Java, then there is a massive difference between these programming languages.
We use C++ for the programming of embedded devices. In other words, most of the time, C++ is used to do a one-time programming code. Such as code in your washing machine, Microwaves, television, setup boxes, and so on.
On the other hand, Java is not used for one-time programming. Java code is used in those applications which can be further developed or upgrade as per the requirements and the needs.
Sorry, that I forget to explain the career scope, most of the students think that C++ is becoming absolute. But it is not true because until we use the embedded devices, C++ will never get absolute. Most of the MNC is offering high packages for C++ developers.
On the other hand, as I mentioned that Java developers are also getting the job in Big data technologies. Java also has a brilliant scope. It will remain one of the most popular languages over the next decade.