Explain how your topic sentence supports your thesis statement. Explain how the quoted and paraphrased material supports your claims and/or adds credibility to your writing.

social sciences


In 200 to 300 words, share a rough draft of one of your paper’s body paragraphs. Your paragraph must include a topic sentence, one direct quote, and one paraphrased passage. Integrate both of these elements into your paragraph using proper APA in-text citations. Below your body paragraph, provide the original text that you are paraphrasing and label it clearly as “Original Source Text.” Include an APA-formatted reference list for the sources noted in the body of your paragraph. In a separate paragraph, Explain how your topic sentence supports your thesis statement. Explain how the quoted and paraphrased material supports your claims and/or adds credibility to your writing. Here are the two texts I plan using and the direct quotes hat I would like you to include in one way or another. 

Physical Education and School Sport (PESS) has historically been considered an integral and essential part of childhood, promoting a range of benefits including childhood health, cognitive development, motor skills, and prosocial behavior.1-3 The positive influence of sport and exercise on health is well recognized.4 In Ireland, the current generation of young adults played two thirds more sport when they were children than their parents did when they were children.5 Despite this only 12% of current post-primary children meet the Department of Health and Children physical activity recommendations of at least 60 minutes/day of moderate to vigorous physical activity and the average time spent in school Physical Education is only 77 minutes/week.6 The number of individuals who are overweight or obese in Ireland is increasing7 and Ireland has one of the highest prevalence of overweight children in comparison to other European and developed countries8 with 1 in 4 Irish children either unfit, overweight, obese, or having high blood pressure.6 Physical Education and School Sport is also viewed as beneficial to educational attainment.1 Several studies have shown that increasing the time devoted to PESS did not harm academic achievement and may enhance achievement in some subjects despite the reduction in teaching time.9,10 However, results can be conflicting and further research seems to be necessary to define the precise relationship between PESS and cognitive outcomes.1 However,therearemanyaspects of PE that can be included in PESS and many sports and activities can be used. Schools in Ireland offer a wide range of sports, but individual schools often limit focustoafew,prioritizedsportsalignedwithdedicated coaches/PE staff. Weekly physical activity levels are greatest in primary school children (10-12 years).

 This then declines with age in both children and adults.6,1 This is pg 8 Bradley J, Keane F, Crawford S. School sport and academic achievement. J Sch Health. 2013; 83: 8-13. The long-term effects of cultivating enjoyment and prolonged participation in sport have also been seen in relation to academic achievement. Eccles and Barber (1999) conducted a longitudinal study that followed over 1,000 individuals from sixth grade to age 25. After years of data collection, they found that the 10th and 12th graders involved in organized sport reported a stronger enjoyment of school than did nonathletes. Furthermore, individuals who participated in sports were significantly more likely to be enrolled in college at age 21 than their nonparticipating counterparts. 

For these young adults to participate in high school organized athletics, an enjoyment of sport was presumably developed in their youth and propelled their continued involvement. Eccles and Barber concluded that the development of traits such as self-esteem, cooperation, discipline, work ethic, and perseverance likely contributed to the resulting academic pursuit, enjoyment, and achievement. These results are important regarding the formation of favorable attitudes toward sport and the intent for continued participation as well as implications for career success. this is pg 207 Prichard, A., & Deutsch, J. (2015). The Effects of Motivational Climate on Youth Sports Participants. Physical Educator, 72200

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