Juvenile Justice Module 3 Textbook Review Questions (Chapters 5 and 6) Explain “collective efficacy.” Discuss Merton’s five modes of adaptation to strain. Explain why labeling theory is important. Discuss the difference between primary and secondary deviance and how they are related to the labeling theory. Define shaming and give an example. Discuss the critical race theory and its narrative approach to the discussion of crime. Describe Sampson and Laub’s “pathways and turning points” contribution to life-course theory. Discuss cultural criminology’s emphasis on culture and media. Explain how peacemaking criminology affixes responsibility not only to the individuals involved in crime and delinquency but also to the social structure that accepts, enables or encourages harm. Discuss Cullen and Agnew’s five central themes of critical theories.