What Are The Important Branches Of Physics For Students

There are three primary areas of science: physics, chemistry, and biology. Other areas of science come from these three main areas. Physics deals with space, time, energy, matter, and their relationship.

When you think about the working of any object such as an aeroplane, washing machine, refrigerator, bullet train, physics is the answer for all your curiosities. 

Every object in this universe works on different working principles, such as the washing machine works on the centrifugation principle and aeroplanes on the aerodynamics principle.

So, if you want to know which branches of physics are related to these operations, you are going the right way. Here we will discuss what are the important branches of physics for students, but we will talk about the term physics before that.

What is physics?

“People like us, who believe in physics, know that the distinction between past, present, and future is only a stubbornly persistent illusion.”
                                                                                                           – Albert Einstein

Physics is a branch of science that studies different principles and methodologies under various areas of science. 

The physics word is derived from the Greek word “Physica,” which means “nature”. Hence we can say that physics is the study of nature. New discoveries and inventions in the field of physics led to rapid progress and brought forth different new branches.

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, physics is the branch of science that deals with the properties and nature of matter and energy. It includes the study of mechanics, heat, light and other radiation sounds, magnetism, and atoms structure.

In simple words, we can say that physics is the answer to all the questions that arise in your mind when you see any object working.

Branches Of Physics

Physics is mainly divided into two branches: classical physics and modern physics. But this is not the end of the list; there are other branches of physics also which we will discuss below.

Classical Physics

This part of physics is mainly concerned with the laws of motion and attraction as laid out in Newton and Clark Maxwell’s dynamic thermodynamics. This part of science manages matter and energy. Normally, physics before 1900 is viewed as traditional physical science, while physics after 1900 is known as current Modern Physics.

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In classical physics, matter and energy are seen as discrete substances. Acoustics, optics, and electromagnetic are usually branches inside classical physics. Also, any theory of science that seems invalid and void in present-day Physics consequently falls under the domain of classical physics.

As Newton’s Laws are one of the primary highlights of classical physics, we should analyze them.

Classical Physics branches further have many branches.


It is one of the common branches of physics in which we study electromagnetic radiations, their interaction with matter. It studies the behavior of different lights such as ultraviolet, visible, infrared, etc. It is further categorized into three areas: Physical and Geometrical Optics.

Physical Optics( Study of light as waves)- It deals with the nature of light and other characteristics.

Geometrical Optics(Study of light as rays) aims to study light interactions with different objects like lenses, mirrors, prisms, etc.

Quantum Optics(Study of light as particles) studies light by relating it to the particles.


Mechanics aims to study the interrelation between various concepts such as motion, force, matter, etc. It works on the concept of movement and motion of objects with or without force concept. 

Moreover, we know about the law of motion, friction, gravitation, displacement, etc. Mechanics is further divided into two study areas: quantum mechanics and classical mechanics.

Quantum Mechanics- It deals with the small particles and their behavior, such as neutrons, protons, and electrons.

Classical Mechanics: It focuses on the laws of motion respective of forces and physical objects.


The main focus of this Branch is sound waves, their properties, applications, and their production. It also studies the passage of mechanical waves through various mediums like solids, liquids, and gases.

It also involves the concepts namely sound, ultrasound, vibration, infrasound. Apart from this, it covers the vibrations and production, reception, control, transmission, and sound impacts.


As the name suggests, it concentrates on heat and other forms of energy. It comes into the picture in the 19th century when scientists were working on steam engines. 

Thermodynamics revolve around the three laws that are considered as the foundation of this branch. We study concepts like convection, radiation, and conduction under this branch.

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Laws of thermodynamics-

First Law- It states that energy neither be created nor destroyed; we can transfer it from one form to another. It is also known as the law of conservation of energy.

Second Law: It tells that entropy of any isolated system(the universe is an ultimate isolated system) only increases and never decreases.

Third Law: It states that when the temperature approaches zero, a system’s entropy will be zero.


Electricity and magnetism are the two aspects of electromagnetism where we study the electric field, light, and magnetic fields. It explains Maxwell’s equations, Faraday’s laws, Coulomb’s law and studies the electric and moving charges that produce the electric and magnetic forces, respectively.

Modern Physics

Modern physics is an attempt to explain the underlying methods of the interactions of matter by using science and engineering tools.

In modern physics, unlike classical physics, matter and energy are not different entities; instead, they are different forms of each other.

Albert Einstein and Max Plank are the founders of this physics and the first people who discover the relativity and quantum mechanics theory around which this study revolves.

It includes the topics, namely photoelectric effect, X-rays, Moseley’s law, Bohr’s theory, De-Broglie wavelength, nuclear physics, etc. 

Pillars of Modern Physics

Modern physics stands on the two pillar those are-

  1. Albert’s Einstein’s theory of relativity
  2. Max Plank’s quantum theory of physics

Quantum Physics 

Quantum physics covers the below subtopics-

  • Quantum field theory
  • Quantum electrodynamics
  • Quantum mechanics
  • Quantum statistics

In quantum mechanics, Schrodinger’s equation plays a crucial role. In simple terms, quantum physics is the study of matter and energy from the basic level.

It works on a central tenet that energy comes in individual packets known as “quanta”. To macroscopic matter, quanta act differently where particles may behave as waves and waves behave as particles.

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Nuclear Physics

Nuclear physics is a part of physical science that manages nuclear cores’ components, structure, behavior, and collaborations. This part of physics should not be mistaken for nuclear physics, which studies the particle all in all, including its electrons. 

As indicated by the Microsoft Encarta reference book, nuclear physics is described as: 

The part of physics wherein the structure, powers, and behavior of the nuclear core is considered.

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Atomic Physics 

Atomic physics is a part of physics that manages the creation of the particle separated from the nucleus. It is basically concerned with the plan and conduct of electrons in the shells around the core and the process of change in this arrangement.

Hence, for the most part, nuclear physics looks at electrons, particles, and molecules. Primarily, atoms are considered in isolation in atomic physics.

Relativistic physics

It deals with the theorem formulated by Albert Einstein. It states that space and time are relative, and motion of all types should be relative to a frame of reference.

It covers the concepts of

Special relativity

General Relativity

Einstein field equation

These  are the main branches of physics and further characterized branches of main branches. These branches of physics will make you learn a lot. By this you increase your knowledge and learn many things.

Other Branches of Physics

Well, this is not the end of the list of physics branches, we have other branches of physics that are important for us from a career and knowledge perspective. These branches are-

  •  Astrophysics
  • Geophysics
  • Plasma Physics
  • Sound and Oscillation
  • Electronics
  • Chemical Physics
  • Engineering Physics
  •  Solid-state Physics
  • Particle Physics
  •  Biophysics
  • Condensed Matter Physics


Physics is a vast area of scientific study that consists of different concepts, principles, and methodologies.

In this blog, we have discussed the important branches of physics that a student should know. I hope these explanations may be helpful for you for Physics assignment help or Physics homework help free. If you have any doubt related to this blog or any other problem, you can contact our experts any time they will be available.  


What are the basic pillars of physics?

Four basic pillars of physics are-

  1. Classical Mechanics
  2. Thermodynamics
  3. Classical Electrodynamics
  4. Quantum Mechanics

Who is known as the father of physics?

Basically, Galileo Galilei is known as the father of modern physics. He was the first scientist who used refracting telescopes for the research of many astronomical discoveries. Although, the different scientists in physics introduce different concepts and equations.

What is the importance of physics, and why should we know the different branches of physics?

Physics is undeniably very important in our daily lives. How we walk, how we work, how objects operate, all the answers are hidden in physics. Physics is applicable in electricity, means of transportation, means of communication, and computers, etc.

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