A nursing preceptor is an assistant, clinical resource, experienced nurse who boost and evaluate nursing skills for newly hired nurses to work independently and confidently (Lippincott Solutions, 2017). The preceptor is responsible for supporting newly hired nurses. The newly hired nurse faces some challenges, such as patient safety, professional attitude, workload, policies, and support. On the one hand, lack of clear objectives, guidelines, and on the one hand and the other new nurses’ allocation to different preceptors cause inconsistent preceptorship and also confusion and uncertainty among the new nurses and preceptors (Valizadeh, Borimnejad, Rahmani, Gholizadeh, & Shahbazi, 2016). The public normal RN turnover rate is 17.1% year over year (NSI Nursing Solutions, 2020). Nurse preceptors & staff who are newly hired must be supported in their nursing roles. Offering educational programs to nurse preceptor can have a positive influence on the role of a nurse preceptor. Preceptors' programs result in a positive return on investment by improving nurse satisfaction, performance, and attrition (Kennedy, 2019). This project aims to educate nursing preceptors to improve the learning process for newly hired nurses. Understanding the important roles of nursing preceptors may help improve the delivery of high-quality patient care.
The purpose of this project is to develop an educational program for nursing preceptors in a hospital setting to promote newly hired nurses regarding high quality patient care.
This project's theoretical framework will apply Patricia Benner’s From Novice to Expert Theory (Benner, 2001). Benner's theory focuses on the development of the knowledge level in the nursing field. In addition, this research theory is appropriate for our project. This will help translate the knowledge in a practice discipline developed by experiential learning, critical thinking, and reflection on training in a particular situation. Also contributing to the nursing professional development by supporting the nurse’s independent roles during the delivery of care consistent with the nursing process. For our project, this theory provides the concept that preceptors or expert nurses develop patient care understanding and skills over time with a sound base of education and many experiences. (Benner, 2001).
Overview of Patricia Benner From Novice to Expert
In 1984, Benner described her model from the five levels of skill acquisition and development include novice, advanced beginner, competent, proficient, and expert (Benner, 2001). Banner examined thirty-one competencies of nursing practice from actual practice situations to seven domains of nursing practice include teaching-coaching function, helping role, diagnostic and patient monitoring function, effective management of rapidly changing conditions, administering and monitoring therapeutic interventions, monitoring and ensuring the quality of health care practices, and organizational work role competencies. These domains might be effective for our project in defining the nurse preceptor’s role clearly.
Benner's theory identifies five levels (Novice, Advanced Beginner, Competent, Proficient, and Expert); the novice level is a nurse with no background experience or outside area practice (Benner, 1982). The advanced beginner level is a nurse who has some experience which is not wholly objected and still guided by rules and protocol. The competition level is a nurse who improves patient care and is skilled in situation management. The proficient level is a nurse who can connect aspects as a whole picture to be confident for priority needs. The expert level nurse can recognize trends with time management depending on the deep experience background and change a plan to solve actual patient concerns.