What were the historical scientific breakthroughs that led to our current understanding of viruses, viroids, and prions? How do viruses, viroids, prions, and bacteria differ in terms of their biological identity and method of infection?

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What were the historical scientific breakthroughs that led to our current understanding of viruses, viroids, and prions? How do viruses, viroids, prions, and bacteria differ in terms of their biological identity and method of infection? What are the chemical and physical properties and the lytic/latent cycles of animal and plant viruses? How can viruses lead to cancer? Be sure to use specific examples (e.g. virus name and the cancer it causes) to illustrate your points. You are growing Bacillus subtilis in nine 16,000-liter fermenters to produce enzymes for industrial use. The Bacillus cultures had been growing for 2 days when the cells in one of the fermenters lysed. Explain what happened in this fermenter. What are the defining characteristics of protozoa in general, and, specifically, how can you differentiate the following phyla of protozoa: Archaezoa, Microspora, Amoebozoa, Apicomplexa, Ciliophora, and Euglenozoa? Be sure to use specific examples (e.g. specific species of protozoan) to illustrate your points. What are the defining characteristics and methods of reproduction of organisms belonging to the Kingdom Fungi in general, and how can you differentiate among the following three fungal phyla, Zygomycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota, in terms of their method of reproduction, method of obtaining nutrients, and importance to humans? What are the distinguishing characteristics of lichens with regard to their nutritional needs, and what are the roles of the fungus and the alga that make up lichens? Describe the physiological characteristics that differentiate the eleven major phyla present in the Domain Bacteria and discuss the importance to humans or the environment of representative member genera from each of these phyla. What is the Bergey's Manual, and how is it used as a tool in the classification or identification of bacteria?

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