There is no doubt that different important areas in accounting have evolved due to technological, economic, and industrial development.
When it comes to accounting, multiple branches deal with the different business operations in an organization.
Accounting is significant for small and large business organizations because it addresses their financial status, cash flow, finance management, losses, and profits.
All such criteria are impossible to determine with only one accounting branch; instead, it requires different concepts to deal with various issues.
If you want to know the essential branches of accounting and what they do, we are here to guide you. This blog will discover the top 8 branches of accounting and why they are important for businesses.
What is Accounting?
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When a company records, assesses, and communicates financial transactions to maintain its financial status and grow leaps and bounds, this process is known as accounting.
Does the company’s owner do all these jobs?
Of course, not; the accountant does all these tasks and contributes to the company’s success. They keep tracking expenses, losses, profits with the help of the accounting formula given below.
Assets=Liability + Equity
Users of Accounting
The company’s financial information is required by a number of stakeholders, including:
- internal users: such as owners, accounting managers, and employees.
- external users: such as investors, creditors and lenders, tax authorities, suppliers, government agencies, etc.
Owners make use of financial statements to determine the performance of their company. They want to know the profit margin and the risk and effects of changing economic environment on their company.
Managers also require information on their accounting to plan and make control decisions regarding their respective divisions. They have to plan expenditures and sales and make projections for the future to make sure that resources are properly allocated through budgeting.
Similarly, lenders and creditors are also keen to know the financial stability and credibility of the business they are lending money to. They are interested in knowing if the company is capable of repaying the loan, by assessing its liquidity and overall financial performance. However investors need financial data to make an informed decision about investing in the company.
What Are Accounting Branches?
Accounting branches measure, process, and transmit financial and non-financial data that impact a company’s economic interests and relationships. The majority of organizations and enterprises use branches of accounting to measure the outcomes of their economic activities. Accounting branches compile and report results to investors, creditors, regulators, management, and tax collectors using various techniques.
Accounting has evolved to extend its branches and create specialties in a particular finance sector due to the growth of global companies and the extension of regulations and tax laws. Technology advancements and international currencies exchanges have resulted in the extension of accounting specialties that focus on a certain economic interest.
Important Branches Of Accounting
There are so many branches of accounting, and some of them are the following:
These are the following name the branches of accounting.
|Branches Of Accounting|
|1. Financial Accounting|
|2. Managerial Accounting|
|3. Cost Accounting|
|4. Tax Accounting|
|6. Forensic Accounting|
|7. Fiduciary Accounting|
|8. Fund Accounting|
|9. Government Accounting|
|10. International Accounting|
|11. Political Campaign Accounting|
|12. Project accounting|
1. Financial Accounting
Financial accounting involves the transaction recording methods of any business by accounting standards, and it is the accounting system’s first version. Financial accounting’s main purpose is to measure the profit and loss of the company over some time and, on a specific date, provide the company’s financial position with an accurate picture.
And to establish the company’s trial balances, balance sheets, and profit & loss accounts, the rules of financial accounting are used. For determining the company’s financial situation, creditors, banks, and financial institutions are helpful.
Financial accounting involves the documentation of a company’s transactions and categorizing transactions. And the information or data is historical, which means it is from the past.
Also, from these transactions, it generates or prepares the financial statements. According to accounting verse, all financial information or data must be prepared by usually accepted accounting standards(GAAP), like balance sheets and income statements.
Further, tax based on these documents can be measured by the taxing authorities. These are just the necessary help, and you can get a lot more than that. There are so many things to know, for e.g., account receivable balances, bank balances, bank reconciliation, account wise summary, etc., and so on.
Financial accounting is done to conform with external rules and regulations, not to evaluate and make financial decisions for internal employees; for that, managerial accounting is used.
2. Managerial Accounting
Managerial accounting, sometimes known as management accounting, focuses on delivering information to internal users, such as management. It plays a key role in decision making or we can say that management can make effective decisions regarding critical issues. Without proper decision-making, it is an impossible task for an organization to succeed.
Rather than rigorous adherence to widely recognized accounting rules, this branch focuses on the requirements of management.
Financial analysis, planning and forecasting, cost analysis, business decision assessment, and other topics of managerial accounting are covered.
3. Cost Accounting
Cost accounting is the type of managerial accounting. In the automotive sector, cost accounting is widely used, and it has a lot of expenses and resources to handle. It is an accounting firm, and it is used to evaluate the activities of a company internally.
Cost accounting deals with determining the good’s price or service. Considering all factors calculates the cost, and the factors include the manufacturing and administrative expenses. The purpose of cost accounting is to fix the prices and also to control the cost of production. This minimum information about these branches of accounting may give an overlapping understanding of each accounting branch.
The cost accounting field involves recording and analyzing manufacturing costs. Accounting tools look at variable costs (changing costs, like charges of shipping) and company’s fixed (unchanging and constant prices, like rent) and how they affect a business, and how these costs can be managed better.
4. Tax Accounting
As the name suggests, it is a branch of accounting to deals with tax-related issues such as tax returns and tax payments. It is important not only for the businesses but also for the individuals and other entities.
In addition, IRC(Internal Revenue Code) governs tax accounting and all the companies have to follow the specific rules while preparing their tax returns that IRC contains.
Tax accounting assists clients in adhering to the regulations established by tax authorities. It entails tax planning as well as tax return preparation.
It also includes determining income tax and other taxes and tax advisory services such as methods to lawfully reduce taxes, assessing the effects of tax actions, and other tax-related concerns.
There are two forms of auditing: external and internal auditing. In external auditing, the independent third party examined the company’s financial statements to ensure that they were presented and followed GAAP correctly.
Internal auditing involves deciding how accounting duties are divided up by the company, who is authorized to do what accounting task, and what processes and policies are in impact.
According to accounting tools, internal auditing helps a company zero in on the fraud, mismanagement, and waste or identify and control any possible weaknesses in its policies or procedures.
Auditing is a discipline of accounting in which an outside certified public accountant, an Auditor, inspects as well as certifies the correctness and consistency of a company’s accounts. Internal auditing is a practice in which a corporate employee or external staff checks the accounts on a regular basis and assists management in keeping correct records for audit reasons.
In most countries, those who certify the accounts are the statutory auditors of the company. And with the company, these auditors must keep an arm’s length relationship. It signifies that the company should not be able to get direct profits. On the other hand, with these auditors, the company has no links.
So that they may examine and report on the status of their accounts on their own. Shareholders in publicly traded businesses appoint these auditors. The company’s management appoints internal auditors at the same time. And these statutory auditors are the company’s shareholders in charge of the correct condition of affairs.
6. Forensic Accounting
This specialist accounting service is becoming increasingly popular in the accounting world. Forensic accounting is concerned with legal matters such as fraud investigations, legal lawsuits, and the resolution of disputes and claims.
In forensic accounting, it uses accounting, investigative, and auditing skills in order to conduct an inspection of the business or individual’s finances.
It gives an accounting analysis that is important for legal proceedings. Forensic accountants are prepared to deal with the reality of an organization in a situation. It is basically used by the insurance industry to address damages from claims.
When financial records are incomplete, forensic accountants must recreate financial data. This might include decoding tampered data or converting a cash accounting system to accrual accounting.
7. Fiduciary Accounting
It is one of the important branches of accounting that is engaged with the recording of trust or estate entity-related transactions.
Fiduciary accounting refers to the management of accounts by someone who has been entrusted with the custody and management of property or for another person’s benefit.
Trust accounting, receivership accounting, and estate accounting are all examples of fiduciary accounting.
8. Fund Accounting
It is used by non-profit entities in order to track the cash amount assigned to various purposes and its uses. It focuses on accountability rather than profitability. Hence, to run a non-profit entity, it needs enough information to make decisions on the utilization of limited resources and report to a third party about resource preservation.
It has to do with keeping track of funds for non-profit organizations. In order to guarantee effective money use, separate fund accounts are kept for various types of tasks, such as welfare programs if such an organization has raised “x” funds to assist in the education of children and “y” funds to assist widow women.
Fund accounting guarantees that all money allocated to designated causes is used for the same purpose.
9. Government Accounting
The main work of government accounting is to record and oversee the state and disbursement & allocation of the federal fund. This can contain elements of social accounting and the cost measurement to humans as it connects to climate change, welfare funds, and the use of federal land. Apart from this, Government accounting explores the fund’s movement via diverse tools and provides budget prerequisites that are maintained or satisfied. Government accountants work in various circumstances and federal programs such as housing, education, and healthcare.
10. International Accounting
International accounting is very crucial for global businesses. Its demand is expanding day by day, and it is necessary to maintain the global market. International accounting mainly serves to learn how rules and regulations work in other countries for pursuing businesses fairly and honestly at the international level. It not only follows GAAP (generally accepted accounting principles) but is well-versed in International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), the accounting standard followed in most international economies.
11. Political Campaign Accounting
Political campaign accounting refers to the process of tracking and reporting financial transactions related to political campaigns. These transactions include donations, expenditures, and debts incurred during a campaign. Political candidates and organizations must adhere to specific rules and regulations regarding campaign finance, which vary by jurisdiction. Proper accounting is essential to ensure compliance with these regulations and avoid legal issues.
12. Project Accounting
Most industries work on various kinds of projects, for example, construction or engineering. Project accounting is a specialized accounting method used to track and report the financial progress of specific projects or contracts. This type of accounting involves tracking and analyzing financial data related to individual projects, such as expenses, revenues, and profits.
Why Choose A Career In Accounting?
There is an old misconception that accounting is a very boring subject, but it is wrong. The reality is that it offers students a lot of job opportunities and better career options. Certified public accountants (CPAs) usually provide financial and tax-related services to individuals and organizations.
According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), the median annual salary of accountants in the U.S. is around $70,500. Also, the above-average growth projections for accounting jobs are 10% between 2016 and 2026, with 1.5 million employment in 2026.
These are the following reasons to choose a career in accounting, it is such as;
- As an American Institute of CPAs (AICPA) accountant, you are a major part of a large network of other experts.
- If you have a degree in accounting, you can work in any industry you choose as a tax expert or a CFO, an auditor or the auditee, etc.
- As an accountant, you will have become a lifelong learner, and your overall roles will be challenging.
- Apart from this, accounting is a very respected business profession that includes one of the most trustworthy professions.
- As an accountant, you can solve a lot of business issues by providing the company with accurate data.
Jobs In The Main Branches of Accounting And Job Skill Sets & Competencies
Following are the jobs in the main branches of accountancy with skill sets and competencies.
|Branches of Accounting||Jobs Category In Branches of Accounting||Job Skill Sets||Accounting competencies||Average Salary|
|1. Financial Accounting||Financial Accountant||Business Acumen, Communication, leadership, customer service, critical thinking, etc.||Risk Assessment, Analysis and Management, reporting, Measurement Analysis and Interpretation, etc.||$58,406|
|2. Managerial Accounting||Accounting Manager||Communication Skills, Technical, Certified Public Accountant, US GAAP, Collaboration, Detail Oriented, etc.||Systems and Process Management, research, technology & tools, reporting, etc.||$78,499|
|3. Cost Accounting||Cost Accountant||Data analysis, problem-solving, and communication abilities.||Solid organizational, problem-solving and research abilities.||$62, 420|
|4. Tax Accounting||Tax accountant||proven work experience as a Tax Accountant, Tax Analyst or Tax Preparer, strong numeracy skills, excellent analytical and time management skills, computer literacy (MS Excel in particular) etc.||Technical skills, research skills, communication skills, teamwork skills, problem-solving skills, organizational skills, etc.||$52,500|
|5. Auditing||Auditors||1. Meticulous attention to detail.2. A strong aptitude for maths.3. Excellent problem-solving skills.4. A keen interest in the financial system.5. Ability to work to deadlines under pressure.||Communication skills, critical thinking, Curiosity, business acumen, etc.||$63,549|
|6. Forensic Accounting||Forensic accountant||Problem-solving, Interpersonal skills, Communication skills, Attention to detail, Logical approach, and Application of law.||Analytical proficiency, specific legal knowledge, deductive analysis, investigative flexibility, written communication, etc.||$145,000|
|7. Fiduciary Accounting||Fiduciary Accountant||Strong analytical and maths skills, experience in bookkeeping and accounting, etc.||Issuing periodic reports on the status of the entity, trust or estate entity transactions, recording||$52557|
|8. Fund Accounting||Fund Accountant||Reconciliation, Calculation, Securities, GAAP, Accruals, Journal Entries, Financial, Statements, Excellent Interpersonal.||Financial Statements, Compliance, US GAAP, Collaboration, NAV, Reconciling and Accrual Accounting||$65,923|
|9. Government Accounting||Government Accountant||Interpersonal communication, Written communication, Independence, etc.||Generally Accepted Government Accounting Standards (GAGAS), Government structure and function, Computer systems and applications, etc.||$159,276|
|10. International Accounting||International Accountant||Risk Assessment, Analysis and Management, Research, etc.||bachelor’s degree in accounting, and internship experience in the financial industry, strong maths and foreign language skills, etc.||$124,000|
Why You Should Choose The Career In Accounting?
There are so many reasons to choose the career in accounting and some of them are the following which are shown below:
- Number of Job Opportunities
- Variety of Roles & Industries
- Rewarding & Exciting Work
- Growth Opportunities
- Good Salary for Accountants
In this blog, you have learned about the top 8 branches of accounting that deal with the different operations and tasks in an organization. And we hope that you have understood it completely as we have explained all the branches with a full description.
If you have any queries related to branches of accounting or you need any type of accounting assignment help online, let us know in the comment section below. We are always ready to help you.
What does an accounting branch do?
The primary job of accounting branches is to process, measure, and communicate financial and non-financial information. This thing affects the associations and economic interests of a business.
What is the importance of accounting for companies?
For companies, accounting performs an important role as it helps you to track expenditures and income, assure legal compliance, and provide investors, management, and government with quantitative financial information to make the decisions for the business.