Federalist No. 10 James Madison, what causes "factions" ? and why are they dangerous? Moreover, why does Madison think it makes sense to have a strong central government? This is what i understood: James Madison believed factions were caused by a group of citizens, who were united and prompted by some common interest, opposing to the rights of other citizens, or to the permanent and aggregate interests of the community, whether amounting to a majority or a minority of the whole. Madison believed that factions were dangerous because they would result in a dictatorship by the majority. Where the larger faction could influence its values and beliefs upon the poor, simply because there were not property owners. The larger faction was the poor versus the smaller unequal distribution of rich property owners. From the protection of different and unequal faculties of acquiring property, the possession of different degrees and kinds of property immediately results. Madison argued if you control the source; you can control the effect. He did not believe that the majority should rule; the causes of factions was one the liberty essential to their existence. If people are not free to form and express their own points of view, then factions could never take hold. In order to have accountability, the faction needed to have more people. This would help bad behavior by having a large republic. Another argument was the larger faction became the less unified it would be. It would be hard to control a group with diversity and opinions. The final argument Madison made without a dictatorship then the faction will unify. He knew that there was the need for a strong centralized government in cases of conflict to protect the country; he also acknowledged that a central government would in no way limit the power state governments.