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- Data Structure

Top of Form

An important advantage of the sequential tree implementation is that (select the best answer):

Select one:

a. It is an extremely shallow tree

b. The data structure can be transmitted between computers

c. It saves space because no pointers are stored

d. It uses dynamic nodes

The correct answer is: It saves space because no pointers are stored

Question 2

Question text

A solution is said to be efficient if it:

Select one:

a. Solves the problem within the required resource constraints

b. Executes faster than other solutions

c. Is completed in the fewest number of steps

d. Can be explained in the context of Big-Oh notation

The correct answer is: Solves the problem within the required resource constraints

Question 3

Question text

Asymptotic Algorithm Analysis is primarily concerned with:

Select one:

a. The size of the constant in the algorithm running time equation

b. The speed of the computing running the algorithm

c. The speed of the compiler

d. The growth rate demonstrated in the algorithm running time equation

The correct answer is: The growth rate demonstrated in the algorithm running time equation

Question 4

Question text

For the following code fragment, select the option which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

/** @return Position of largest value in "A“ */

static int largest(int[] A) {

int currlarge = 0; // Position of largest

for (int i=1; i<A.length; i++)

if (A[currlarge] < A[i])

currlarge = i; // Remember pos

return currlarge; // Return largest pos

}

Choice 1. Θ ( n )

Choice 2. O( 2n )

Choice 3. Θ( n log n )

Choice 4. Ω( n2 )

(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 1

Question 5

Question text

The process of determining if two objects are in the same set and then merging those sets is called:

Select one:

a. a Union Operation

b. Union / Find

c. a Weighted Union

d. a Merge Operation

The correct answer is: Union / Find

Question 6

Question text

A sequential tree can be represented using a bit vector?

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

Question 7

Question text

Enqueue and Dequeue are notations associated with which data structure:

Select one:

a. Queue

b. Stack

c. List

d. Array

The correct answer is: Queue

Question 8

Question text

True/False: The stack data structure is implemented as a LIFO structure (last in first out)

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

Question 9

Question text

Correctly identify the following heap structure by selecting the best answer:

Select one:

a. partially ordered heap

b. max-heap structure

c. priority heap

d. min-heap structure

The correct answer is: max-heap structure

Question 10

Question text

True/False: Big Theta (Θ) indicates that the Upper and Lower bounds of an algorithm are the same.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

Question 11

Question text

A finite set of one or more nodes such that there is one designated node call the root is a: (select the best answer)

Select one:

a. Parent root

b. a B+ tree data structure

c. Index

d. Tree

The correct answer is: Tree

Question 12

Question text

If A={1, 2, 3, 4} and B={4, 5, 6}, find A∪ B .

Select one:

a. {1,2,3,4,4,5,6}

b. {4}

c. {x | x is all positive integers}

d. {1,2,3,4,5,6}

The correct answer is: {1,2,3,4,5,6}

Question 13

Question text

Select the answer that best defines Huffman Coding:

Select one:

a. A set of coding rules that is typically used for compression

b. A fixed length coding scheme for character representation

c. A tree structure that trades off space and time requirements to provide a more efficient priority queue

d. An approach of assigning codes to characters such that the frequency length of the code depends upon the relative frequency of the corresponding character in use

The correct answer is: An approach of assigning codes to characters such that the frequency length of the code depends upon the relative frequency of the corresponding character in use

Question 14

Question text

A leaf is any node that:

Select one:

a. Has one child

b. Is an internal node with no ancestors

c. Is any node with two empty children

d. Is the ancestor of the root node

The correct answer is: Is any node with two empty children

Question 15

Question text

A linked list implementation relies upon static memory allocation where static refers to the requirement to pre-allocate all of the memory that will be used for the list.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

Question 16

Question text

For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

for (int i = 1; i <= n; i *= 2) {

for (int j = 0; j < n; j++) {

count++;

}

}

Option 1. O( 1 )

Option 2. O( 2n )

Option 3. O( n log n )

Option 4. O( n2 )

Select one:

a. Option 1

b. Option 2

c. Option 3

d. Option 4

Explanation: Here the outer loop is done log n times and the inner loop is done n times, so T(n) = n log n. (Note that the default base for logarithms in Computer Science is 2.)

The correct answer is: Option 3

Question 17

Question text

In linked lists there are no NULL links in:

Select one:

a. Single linked list

b. Linear doubly linked list

c. Circular linked list

d. None of these

The correct answer is: Circular linked list

Question 18

Question text

True/False: Big Theta (Θ) indicates that the Upper and Lower bounds of an algorithm are the same.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

Question 19

Question text

A list is said to be empty when all of its elements have a zero (0) value

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

Question 20

Question text

A full binary tree has a restricted shape which starts at the root and fills the tree by levels from left to right.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

Question 21

Question text

Which of the following is NOT one of the design patterns outlined in our text.

Select one:

a. Flyweight

b. Visitor

c. Composite

d. Synergy

The correct answer is: Synergy

Question 22

Question text

The upper bound for the growth of the Algorithms running time is represented by (please select the best answer):

1. Big Oh (O)

2. Big Omega (Ω)

3. Big Theta (Θ)

4. Exponential growth

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 1

Question 23

Question text

The most time consuming of the following operations on an array based list implementation is:

Select one:

a. Inserting a new element at position n-1 in the list where n is the number of elements in the list.

b. Inserting a new element into the head of the list.

c. Removing an element at position n-1 within the list

d. Removing an element from the tail of the list.

The correct answer is: Inserting a new element into the head of the list.

Question 24

Question text

Which of the following is not a characteristic of an algorithm?

Select one:

a. It must be correct

b. It must be composed of concrete steps

c. It can have no ambiguity

d. It must be composed of an infinite number of steps.

The correct answer is: It must be composed of an infinite number of steps.

Question 25

Question text

For the following code fragment, select the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

// Towers of Hanoi

static void solveHanoi(int disks, char fromPole, char toPole, char withPole) {

if (disks >= 1) {

solveHanoi(disks-1, fromPole, withPole, toPole);

moveDisk(fromPole, toPole);

solveHanoi(disks-1, withPole, toPole, fromPole);

}

}

static void moveDisk(char fromPole, char toPole) {

moves++;

}

Option 1. O( n )

Option 2. O( 2n )

Option 3. O( n log n )

Option 4. O( n2 )

Select one:

a. Option 1

b. Option 2

c. Option 3

d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 2

Bottom of Form

For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

for (int i = 0; i < a.length; i++) {

System.out.println(a[i]);

}

Option 1. O( n )

Option 2. O( 2n )

Option 3. O( n log n )

Option 4. O( n2 )

Select one:

a. Option 1

b. Option 2

c. Option 3

d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 1

Question 2

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The weighted union rule joins a tree with fewer nodes to a tree with more nodes by making the smaller tree’s root point to the root of the larger tree.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

Question 3

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The depth of node H in the following tree is:

Select one:

a. 3

b. 2

c. 4

d. 1

The correct answer is: 3

Question 4

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The most significant difference between the B+-Tree and the BST is that the B+-Tree stores records only at the leaf nodes.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

Question 5

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True/False: Big Theta (Θ) indicates that the Upper and Lower bounds of an algorithm are the same.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

Question 6

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The quicksort is typically slower than the heapsort by a constant factor.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

Question 7

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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

static int function ( n ) {

sum = 0;

for (i=1; i<=n; i++)

sum += n;

return sum;

}

Choice 1. Ω( n2 )

Choice 2. Ω( log n2 )

Choice 3. Θ( n log n )

Choice 4. O ( n )

(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 4

Question 8

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A compound computed search that combines a binary search to get close to the required record and then uses sequential search to find the item is referred to as a/an:

Select one:

a. Zipf search

b. An Exact match search

c. A Dictionary search

d. bit map vector search

The correct answer is: A Dictionary search

Question 9

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The process for visiting all of the nodes of a binary tree in some order is called a traversal.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

Question 10

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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

function ( n ) {

sum2 = 0;

for (k=1; k<=n; k*=2)

for (j=1; j<=k; j++)

sum2++;

}

Choice 1. O( 2n )

Choice 2. Θ ( n )

Choice 3. Θ( n log n )

Choice 4. Ω( n2 )

(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 2

Question 11

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A linked list creates order through the use of pointers that link one element to another.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

Question 12

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Inserting or removing an item at position n-1 within a linked list has the same cost in terms ( n ) time as the same operation in an array based implementation of a list.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

Question 13

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Select the answer that best defines Huffman Coding:

Select one:

a. A set of coding rules that is typically used for compression

b. A fixed length coding scheme for character representation

c. A tree structure that trades off space and time requirements to provide a more efficient priority queue

d. An approach of assigning codes to characters such that the frequency length of the code depends upon the relative frequency of the corresponding character in use

The correct answer is: An approach of assigning codes to characters such that the frequency length of the code depends upon the relative frequency of the corresponding character in use

Question 14

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A tree data structure whose shape obeys the following definition,

o A node contains one or two keys

o Every internal node has either 2 children if it contains 1 key or 3 children if it contains two keys

o All leaves are at the same level in the tree

Is called a/an:

Select one:

a. B*-Tree

b. BST

c. B+-Tree

d. 2-3 tree

The correct answer is: 2-3 tree

Question 15

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Data is stored within the disk drive on the: (select the best answer)

Select one:

a. Spindle

b. Platter

c. Cylinder

d. Sector

The correct answer is: Platter

Question 16

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For the following code fragment, select the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

// Towers of Hanoi

static void solveHanoi(int disks, char fromPole, char toPole, char withPole) {

if (disks >= 1) {

solveHanoi(disks-1, fromPole, withPole, toPole);

moveDisk(fromPole, toPole);

solveHanoi(disks-1, withPole, toPole, fromPole);

}

}

static void moveDisk(char fromPole, char toPole) {

moves++;

}

Option 1. O( n )

Option 2. O( 2n )

Option 3. O( n log n )

Option 4. O( n2 )

Select one:

a. Option 1

b. Option 2

c. Option 3

d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 2

Question 17

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The full binary tree theorem states “the number of leaves in an empty full binary tree is one more than the number of internal nodes”

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

Question 18

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A full binary tree has a restricted shape which starts at the root and fills the tree by levels from left to right.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

Question 19

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A list that organizes the order of records within the list based upon patterns of actual record access is called a/an (select the best answer):

Select one:

a. Quadratic Binary search order

b. A Zipf Distribution

c. A Self-organizing list

d. A range query

The correct answer is: A Self-organizing list

Question 20

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An exchange sort is one where: (select the best answer)

Select one:

a. Records in an unsorted list are moved to a sorted list

b. Adjacent records in the list and compared and exchanged

c. An inversion is executed

d. The sorting algorithm is said to be stable

The correct answer is: Adjacent records in the list and compared and exchanged

Question 21

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An algorithm that breaks a file to be sorted in smaller files called runs which are sorted and eventually put back together resulting in a sorted file is called:

Select one:

a. Quicksort algorithm

b. Replacement sort algorithm

c. An indexed key sort algorithm

d. Mergesort algorithm

The correct answer is: Mergesort algorithm

Question 22

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The lower bound for the growth of the Algorithms running time is represented by (please the best answer):

1. Big Oh (O)

2. Big Omega (Ω)

3. Big Theta (Θ)

4. Exponential growth

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 2

Question 23

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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

function ( n ) {

sum1 = 0;

for (i=1; i<=n; i++)

for (j=1; j<=n; j++)

sum1++;

}

Choice 1. Θ ( n2 )

Choice 2. O( 2n )

Choice 3. Θ( n log n )

Choice 4. Ω( log n2 )

(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 1

Question 24

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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

static int function ( n ) {

for (k=0; k<n; k++)

A[k] = k;

return A[k];

}

Choice 1. O ( n2 )

Choice 2. O( 2n )

Choice 3. Ω( n2 )

Choice 4. Θ ( n )

(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 4

Question 25

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A technique that allows a programmer to use more main memory than exists in the computer is called: (select the best answer)

Select one:

a. Buffer cache

b. Random access memory

c. Secondary storage

d. Virtual memory

The correct answer is: Virtual memory

Question 26

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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

public static int binarySearch(int[] a, int key) {

int left = 0;

int right = a.length-1;

while (left <= right) {

int mid = left + (right-left)/2;

if (key < a[mid]) right = mid-1;

else if (key > a[mid]) left = mid+1;

else return mid;

}

//not found

return -1;

}

Option 1. Ω( 1 ), O( log n )

Option 2. Ω( n ), O( 2n )

Option 3. Θ( n log n )

Option 4. Θ( log n )

Select one:

a. Option 1

b. Option 2

c. Option 3

d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 1

Question 27

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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

static int function ( n ) {

for (k=0; k<n; k++)

A[k] = k;

return A[k];

}

Choice 1. Θ ( n log n )

Choice 2. O( 2n )

Choice 3. O( n )

Choice 4. Ω( n2 )

(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3

Question 28

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A list is

Select one:

a. An ADT for storing and retrieving data

b. A tree data structure

c. Finite ordered sequence of data items

d. A collection of operations to implement an ADT

The correct answer is: Finite ordered sequence of data items

Question 29

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Internal Fragmentation refers to: (select the best answer)

Select one:

a. Space that is left empty because records do not fit evenly into a sector

b. Space allocated to a file that is not physically adjacent on the disk drive

c. Space that is left empty because records do not fit evenly into a sector or Space allocated to a file that is not physically adjacent

d. None of the options

The correct answer is: Space that is left empty because records do not fit evenly into a sector or Space allocated to a file that is not physically adjacent

Question 30

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The best asymptotic analysis for the selection sort is represented by (select the best option):

Option 1. O( n log n )

Option 2. Ω( n2 )

Option 3. O( n2 )

Option 4. Θ( n2 )

Select one:

a. Option 1

b. Option 2

c. Option 3

d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 4

Question 31

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Each record of a database normally has a unique identifier called the:

Select one:

a. Secondary Key

b. Primary index

c. Primary key

d. Index key

The correct answer is: Primary key

Question 32

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True/False: The queue data structure is implemented as FIFO structure (first in first out)

:

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

Question 33

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The benefit of a quicksort is that it provides excellent performance in both the average and worst case:

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

Question 34

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Setting the dirty bit causes what action to be performed on a block: (select the best answer)

Select one:

a. It is deleted because it is no longer consistent

b. It flushes or writes the block out to the disk

c. Refreshes the data by re-reading the block

d. It cleans the cache by flushing all data from the cache

The correct answer is: It flushes or writes the block out to the disk

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According to the properties of logarithms, log(nm) =

Note: Due to issues with HTML formatting, an exponent is represented by preceding it with the ^ symbol. As such x^2 is equivalent to x2.

Select one:

a. log n – log m

b. n log n

c. log n + log m

d. log(n^m)

The correct answer is: log n + log m

Question 36

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A sorting algorithm that assigns records to bins and then relies on some other sorting technique to sort the records within each bin called:

Select one:

a. Radix Sort

b. Quicksort

c. Hash sort

d. Bucket sort

The correct answer is: Bucket sort

Question 37

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The upper bound for the growth of the Algorithms running time is represented by (please select the best answer):

1. Big Oh (O)

2. Big Omega (Ω)

3. Big Theta (Θ)

4. Exponential growth

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 1

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In linked lists there are no NULL links in:

Select one:

a. Single linked list

b. Linear doubly linked list

c. Circular linked list

d. None of these

The correct answer is: Circular linked list

Question 39

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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

for (int i = 1; i <= n; i *= 2) {

for (int j = 0; j < n; j++) {

count++;

}

}

Option 1. O( 1 )

Option 2. O( 2n )

Option 3. O( n log n )

Option 4. O( n2 )

Select one:

a. Option 1

b. Option 2

c. Option 3

d. Option 4

Explanation: Here the outer loop is done log n times and the inner loop is done n times, so T(n) = n log n. (Note that the default base for logarithms in Computer Science is 2.)

The correct answer is: Option 3

Question 40

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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

static int function ( n ) {

sum = 0;

for (j=1; j<=n; j++)

for (i=1; i<=j; i++)

sum++;

return sum;

}

Choice 1. Θ ( n )

Choice 2. O( 2n )

Choice 3. Θ( n2 )

Choice 4. Ω( n2 )

(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3

Question 41

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The upper bound for the growth of the Algorithms running time is represented by:

Select one:

a. Big Oh (O)

b. Big Omega (Ω)

c. Big Theta (Θ)

d. Exponential growth

The correct answer is: Big Oh (O)

Question 42

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Which of the following is NOT one of the design patterns outlined in our text.

Select one:

a. Flyweight

b. Visitor

c. Composite

d. Synergy

The correct answer is: Synergy

Question 43

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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

function ( n ) {

sum1 = 0;

for (k=1; k<=n; k*=2)

for (j=1; j<=n; j++)

sum1++;

}

Choice 1. Θ ( n )

Choice 2. O( 2n )

Choice 3. Θ( n log n )

Choice 4. Ω( n2 )

(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3

Question 44

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When big-Oh and coincide, we indicate this by using (select the best answer):

1. Big Oh (O)

2. Big Omega (Ω)

3. Big Theta (Θ)

4. Exponential growth

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3

Question 45

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A traversal that visits the left subtree, then the node, and then the right subtree is called:

Select one:

a. Preorder Traversal

b. Postorder Traversal

c. Inorder Traversal

d. Outoforder Traversal

The correct answer is: Inorder Traversal

Question 46

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A sequential tree can be represented using a bit vector?

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

Question 47

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A list is said to be empty when all of its elements have a zero (0) value

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

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A sort algorithm that uses two nested loops with the inner loop moving through the array from bottom to top is called the:

Select one:

a. Insertion sort

b. Bubble sort

c. Inversion sort

d. Selection sort

The correct answer is: Bubble sort

Question 49

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Which of the following is not a characteristic of an algorithm?

Select one:

a. It must be correct

b. It must be composed of concrete steps

c. It can have no ambiguity

d. It must be composed of an infinite number of steps.

The correct answer is: It must be composed of an infinite number of steps.

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Which of the following is not a mathematical proof technique?

Select one:

a. Proof by mathematical induction

b. Proof by contradiction

c. Direct proof

d. Proof by consensus

The correct answer is: Proof by consensus

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True/False: Big Theta (Θ) indicates that the Upper and Lower bounds of an algorithm are the same.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

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A collection of one or more trees is called:

Select one:

a. Trees

b. Multiple Spanning Trees

c. a Forest

d. Traversals

The correct answer is: a Forest

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The most time consuming of the following operations on an array based list implementation is:

Select one:

a. Inserting a new element at position n-1 in the list where n is the number of elements in the list.

b. Inserting a new element into the head of the list.

c. Removing an element at position n-1 within the list

d. Removing an element from the tail of the list.

The correct answer is: Inserting a new element into the head of the list.

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In a queue, placing new items in the queue is referred to as a push and taking an item out of the queue is called a pop.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

Question 55

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A method that is designed to create extremely shallow trees is called:

Select one:

a. Dynamic node implementation

b. Union/Find

c. The list of children method

d. Path compression

The correct answer is: Path compression

Question 56

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Correctly identify the following heap structure by selecting the best answer:

Select one:

a. partially ordered heap

b. max-heap structure

c. priority heap

d. min-heap structure

The correct answer is: max-heap structure

Question 57

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True/False: There is always one most efficient algorithm to solve a particular problem.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

Question 58

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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

if (a.length > 0) {

return a[a.length - 1];

} else {

throw new NoSuchElementException();

}

Option 1. O( 1 )

Option 2. O( 2n )

Option 3. O( n log n )

Option 4. O( n2 )

Select one:

a. Option 1

b. Option 2

c. Option 3

d. Option 4

Explanation: Here n = a.length, and T(n) = 1.

The correct answer is: Option 1

Question 59

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An ADT is:

Select one:

a. A type together with a collection of operations to manipulate the type

b. An implementation of a flyweight design pattern

c. The realization of a data type as a software component

d. An implementation in java of a class for a data type

The correct answer is: The realization of a data type as a software component

Question 60

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Which of the following is not one of the general approaches to search algorithms:

Select one:

a. Buffer cache access methods

b. Sequential and list methods

c. Direct access by key value (hashing)

d. Tree indexing methods

The correct answer is: Buffer cache access methods

Question 61

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A preorder traversal visits every node starting at the leaf nodes and working up the tree.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

Question 62

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A tree whose internal nodes all have exactly K children is called a K-ary tree.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

Question 63

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According to textbook by Shaffer, a heap data structure has two properties which are:

Select one:

a. every node stores a value less than or equal to that of its children and it is a complete binary tree

b. it is a min-heap and is partially ordered

c. it is a complete binary tree and the values stored in it are partially ordered

d. it is a priority queue and is in Θ( n )

The correct answer is: it is a complete binary tree and the values stored in it are partially ordered

Question 64

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A traversal that visits each node before visiting its children is called:

Select one:

a. Preorder traversal

b. Postorder traversal

c. Inorder Traversal

d. Outoforder Traversal

The correct answer is: Preorder traversal

Question 65

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A traversal of a general tree that traverses the roots subtrees from left to right, then visits the root is called a preorder traversal.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

Question 66

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Which of the following is NOT one of the buffer pool heuristics defined in the text : (select the best answer)

Select one:

a. FIFO

b. LIFO

c. LRU

d. LFU

The correct answer is: LIFO

Question 67

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A solution is said to be efficient if it:

Select one:

a. Solves the problem within the required resource constraints

b. Executes faster than other solutions

c. Is completed in the fewest number of steps

d. Can be explained in the context of Big-Oh notation

The correct answer is: Solves the problem within the required resource constraints

Question 68

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The list of children approach uses both pointers and an array structure to represent the tree.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

Question 69

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A characteristic of RAM (random access memory) is that it is persistent and is not lost when the power to a computer is turned off.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

Question 70

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For the following code fragment, select option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

for (i=0; i<n; i++) {

//

// Search in array a for smallest element starting at i to n-1

//

minIndex = findSmallestElement(a, i, n-1)

a[i] = a[minIndex];

}

findSmallestElement( int a[], int i, int n ) {

int largest = a[i];

while(i<n) {

if(a[i] >a[largest])

largest = i;

i++;

}

return(largest);

}

Option 1. O( n )

Option 2. O( 2n )

Option 3. O( n log n )

Option 4. O( n2 )

Select one:

a. Option 1

b. Option 2

c. Option 3

d. Option 4

index-of-smallest element in a[i..j] takes j-i+1 operations

• n + (n-1) + (n-2) + (n-3) + ... + 3 + 2 + 1

• this is n2

The correct answer is: Option 4

Question 71

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Push and Pop are notations associated with which data structure:

Select one:

a. Queue

b. Stack

c. List

d. Array

The correct answer is: Stack

Question 72

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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

function ( n ) {

sum2 = 0;

for (i=1; i<=n; i++)

for (j=1; j<=i; j++)

sum2++;

}

}

Choice 1. Ω ( 1 )

Choice 2. O( 2n )

Choice 3. Θ( n2 )

Choice 4. Ω( n2 )

(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3

Question 73

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The process of storing records in the order that they were added to a file is called:

Select one:

a. Entry-sequenced file

b. Binary Sequenced file

c. LIFO file format

d. Tombstone approach

The correct answer is: Entry-sequenced file

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Secondary storage is characterized by the following:

Select one:

a. It is persistent

b. It is faster than primary storage

c. It is volatile

d. It is more expensive than primary storage

The correct answer is: It is persistent

Question 75

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Which of the following items is NOT true for Array-Based Lists (please select the best choice):

Choice 1. Insertion and deletion operations are ( n )

Choice 2. Direct access of an item in the array is ( 1 )

Choice 3. Space used grows dynamically as the array is populated

Choice 4. Array contains wasted space if array positions are not full

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3

Question 76

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A linear index is an index file organized as a sequence of key/pointer pairs where the keys are in a sorter order.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

Question 77

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In a stack which option would access the 3rd element from the top of the stack S

Option 1. S.push(-1);

Option 2. S.dequeue(-3);

Option 3. S.pop();

S.pop();

S.pop();

Option 4. S.pop(n-3);

Select one:

a. Option 1

b. Option 2

c. Option 3

d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 3

Question 78

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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

// Recursive Fibonacci generator

static long fibr(int n) {

if ((n == 1) || (n == 2)) return 1; // Base case

return fibr(n-1) + fibr(n-2); // Recursive call

}

Option 1. O( n )

Option 2. O( 2n )

Option 3. O( n log n )

Option 4. O( n2 )

Select one:

a. Option 1

b. Option 2

c. Option 3

d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 2

Question 79

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A binary tree traversal that lists every node in the tree exactly once is called:

Select one:

a. a Traversal

b. A visitor design pattern

c. An enumeration

d. Natural ordering sequence

The correct answer is: An enumeration

Question 80

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The process of storing blocks of data in main memory after reading from disk is referred to as:

Select one:

a. Buffering

b. Hashing

c. Pooling

d. Indexing

The correct answer is: Buffering

Question 81

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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

static int function ( n ) {

sum = 0;

for (i=1; i<=n; i++)

sum += n;

return sum;

}

Choice 1. Ω( n2 )

Choice 2. Θ ( n2 )

Choice 3. O( log n )

Choice 4. O( n )

(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 4

Question 82

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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

/** @return The position of an element in sorted array A with value k. If k is not in A,return A.length. */

static int binary(int[] A, int k) {

int l = -1; // Set l and r

int r = A.length; // beyond array bounds

while (l+1 != r) { // Stop when l, r meet

int i = (l+r)/2; // Check middle

if (k < A[i]) r = i; // In left half

if (k == A[i]) return i; // Found it

if (k > A[i]) l = i; // In right half

}

return A.length; // Search value not in A

}

Choice 1. Θ ( n )

Choice 2. O( 2n )

Choice 3. O( log n )

Choice 4. Ω( n2 )

(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3

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A linked list implementation relies upon static memory allocation where static refers to the requirement to pre-allocate all of the memory that will be used for the list.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

Question 84

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A traversal that visits each node after visiting its children is called:

Select one:

a. Preorder Traversal

b. Postorder Traversal

c. Inorder Traversal

d. Outoforder Traversal

The correct answer is: Postorder Traversal

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A sort where the list is divided into halves, the halves sorted and these two halves are merged is called:

Select one:

a. Mergesort

b. Binary sort

c. Quicksort

d. Heapsort

The correct answer is: Mergesort

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A coding scheme that replaces repeated occurrences of strings with a pointer to the location in the file of the first occurrence of the string is called Ziv-Lempel coding.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

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A sort that features a limit of n-1 of record swaps is called:

Select one:

a. Insertion sort

b. Bubble sort

c. Inversion sort

d. Selection sort

The correct answer is: Selection sort

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A finite set of one or more nodes such that there is one designated node call the root is a: (select the best answer)

Select one:

a. Parent root

b. a B+ tree data structure

c. Index

d. Tree

The correct answer is: Tree

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The freelist …

Select one:

a. Provides access to memory within the operating system that has not yet been allocated

b. Provides access to memory objects which have no Big O ( n ) time.

c. Facilitates and encourages the use of the new operator.

d. Holds the list nodes that are no longer in use.

The correct answer is: Holds the list nodes that are no longer in use.

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For the following code fragment, select the option which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

static int function ( n ) {

sum = 0;

for (i=1; i<=n; i++)

sum += n;

return sum;

}

Option 1. Ω( n2 )

Option 2. Θ ( n )

Option 3. O( log n )

Option 4. O( 2n )

(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 2

Question 91

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True/False: The stack data structure is implemented as a LIFO structure (last in first out)

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

Question 92

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A leaf is any node that:

Select one:

a. Has one child

b. Is an internal node with no ancestors

c. Is any node with two empty children

d. Is the ancestor of the root node

The correct answer is: Is any node with two empty children

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Which of the following is NOT true for Linked Lists structures (please select the best choice):

Choice 1. Insertion and deletion are ( 1 ).

Choice 2. Direct access of an item in the list structure is ( n ).

Choice 3. Space grows with number of elements.

Choice 4. There is no overhead associated with elements in the list structure

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 4

Question 94

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Enqueue and Dequeue are notations associated with which data structure:

Select one:

a. Queue

b. Stack

c. List

d. Array

The correct answer is: Queue

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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

public E getValue ( ) {

assert (curr >= 0) && (curr < listSize) :

"No current element";

return listArray[curr];

}

Choice 1. Θ ( n )

Choice 2. O( 2n )

Choice 3. Θ( n log n )

Choice 4. O( 1 )

(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 4

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For the following code fragment, select the option which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

/** @return Position of largest value in "A“ */

static int largest(int[] A) {

int currlarge = 0; // Position of largest

for (int i=1; i<A.length; i++)

if (A[currlarge] < A[i])

currlarge = i; // Remember pos

return currlarge; // Return largest pos

}

Choice 1. Θ ( n )

Choice 2. O( 2n )

Choice 3. Θ( n log n )

Choice 4. Ω( n2 )

(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 1

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The process of determining if two objects are in the same set and then merging those sets is called:

Select one:

a. a Union Operation

b. Union / Find

c. a Weighted Union

d. a Merge Operation

The correct answer is: Union / Find

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The implementation of a data type as a data structure is the physical form of an ADT.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

Question 99

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An important advantage of the sequential tree implementation is that (select the best answer):

Select one:

a. It is an extremely shallow tree

b. The data structure can be transmitted between computers

c. It saves space because no pointers are stored

d. It uses dynamic nodes

The correct answer is: It saves space because no pointers are stored

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The processing time or cost of a sort is defined by the number of comparisons and exchanges that must be made during processing. What is the average cost of the heapsort?:

Option 1. O( n log n )

Option 2. Ω( n2 )

Option 3. O( n2 )

Option 4. Θ( n2 )

Select one:

a. Option 1

b. Option 2

c. Option 3

d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 1

Question 101

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A significant benefit to using an index to hold and sort keys to a file is:

Select one:

a. Smaller keys require less I/O

b. The entire sort can always be completed in memory

c. The head of the disk drive does not need to move

d. There is no seek time added to the latency of I/O operations

The correct answer is: Smaller keys require less I/O

Question 102

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If A={1, 2, 3, 4} and B={4, 5, 6}, find A∪ B .

Select one:

a. {1,2,3,4,4,5,6}

b. {4}

c. {x | x is all positive integers}

d. {1,2,3,4,5,6}

The correct answer is: {1,2,3,4,5,6}

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The process of associating a key with the location of a corresponding data record is called folding.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

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Asymptotic Algorithm Analysis is primarily concerned with:

Select one:

a. The size of the constant in the algorithm running time equation

b. The speed of the computing running the algorithm

c. The speed of the compiler

d. The growth rate demonstrated in the algorithm running time equation

The correct answer is: The growth rate demonstrated in the algorithm running time equation

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What is the role of the pivot in a quicksort algorithm?

Select one:

a. It identifies the maxkey value

b. It specifies the point where the array will be subdivided into partitions and each partition then sorted

c. It defines the sequence for merging in the sort

d. It indicates the index of the current record being compared

The correct answer is: It specifies the point where the array will be subdivided into partitions and each partition then sorted

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Recursion is when an algorithm uses a series of loop structures to repeat an operation until the answer has been computed.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

A sort that features a limit of n-1 of record swaps is called:

Select one:

a. Insertion sort

b. Bubble sort

c. Inversion sort

d. Selection sort

The correct answer is: Selection sort

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A list is said to be empty when all of its elements have a zero (0) value

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

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A characteristic of RAM (random access memory) is that it is persistent and is not lost when the power to a computer is turned off.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

Question 4

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Correctly identify the following heap structure by selecting the best answer:

Select one:

a. partially ordered heap

b. max-heap structure

c. priority heap

d. min-heap structure

The correct answer is: max-heap structure

Question 5

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True/False: The queue data structure is implemented as FIFO structure (first in first out)

:

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

Question 6

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The process for visiting all of the nodes of a binary tree in some order is called a traversal.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

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A traversal that visits each node before visiting its children is called:

Select one:

a. Preorder traversal

b. Postorder traversal

c. Inorder Traversal

d. Outoforder Traversal

The correct answer is: Preorder traversal

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A sort where the list is divided into halves, the halves sorted and these two halves are merged is called:

Select one:

a. Mergesort

b. Binary sort

c. Quicksort

d. Heapsort

The correct answer is: Mergesort

Question 9

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A linked list implementation relies upon static memory allocation where static refers to the requirement to pre-allocate all of the memory that will be used for the list.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

public E getValue ( ) {

assert (curr >= 0) && (curr < listSize) :

"No current element";

return listArray[curr];

}

Choice 1. Θ ( n )

Choice 2. O( 2n )

Choice 3. Θ( n log n )

Choice 4. O( 1 )

(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 4

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The list of children approach uses both pointers and an array structure to represent the tree.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

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The upper bound for the growth of the Algorithms running time is represented by:

Select one:

a. Big Oh (O)

b. Big Omega (Ω)

c. Big Theta (Θ)

d. Exponential growth

The correct answer is: Big Oh (O)

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A preorder traversal visits every node starting at the leaf nodes and working up the tree.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

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Select the answer that best defines Huffman Coding:

Select one:

a. A set of coding rules that is typically used for compression

b. A fixed length coding scheme for character representation

c. A tree structure that trades off space and time requirements to provide a more efficient priority queue

d. An approach of assigning codes to characters such that the frequency length of the code depends upon the relative frequency of the corresponding character in use

The correct answer is: An approach of assigning codes to characters such that the frequency length of the code depends upon the relative frequency of the corresponding character in use

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An exchange sort is one where: (select the best answer)

Select one:

a. Records in an unsorted list are moved to a sorted list

b. Adjacent records in the list and compared and exchanged

c. An inversion is executed

d. The sorting algorithm is said to be stable

The correct answer is: Adjacent records in the list and compared and exchanged

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The processing time or cost of a sort is defined by the number of comparisons and exchanges that must be made during processing. What is the average cost of the heapsort?:

Option 1. O( n log n )

Option 2. Ω( n2 )

Option 3. O( n2 )

Option 4. Θ( n2 )

Select one:

a. Option 1

b. Option 2

c. Option 3

d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 1

Question 17

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A linked list creates order through the use of pointers that link one element to another.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

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A technique that allows a programmer to use more main memory than exists in the computer is called: (select the best answer)

Select one:

a. Buffer cache

b. Random access memory

c. Secondary storage

d. Virtual memory

The correct answer is: Virtual memory

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A list that organizes the order of records within the list based upon patterns of actual record access is called a/an (select the best answer):

Select one:

a. Quadratic Binary search order

b. A Zipf Distribution

c. A Self-organizing list

d. A range query

The correct answer is: A Self-organizing list

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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

static int function ( n ) {

sum = 0;

for (j=1; j<=n; j++)

for (i=1; i<=j; i++)

sum++;

return sum;

}

Choice 1. Θ ( n )

Choice 2. O( 2n )

Choice 3. Θ( n2 )

Choice 4. Ω( n2 )

(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3

Question 21

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A tree data structure whose shape obeys the following definition,

o A node contains one or two keys

o Every internal node has either 2 children if it contains 1 key or 3 children if it contains two keys

o All leaves are at the same level in the tree

Is called a/an:

Select one:

a. B*-Tree

b. BST

c. B+-Tree

d. 2-3 tree

The correct answer is: 2-3 tree

Question 22

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A collection of one or more trees is called:

Select one:

a. Trees

b. Multiple Spanning Trees

c. a Forest

d. Traversals

The correct answer is: a Forest

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The most significant difference between the B+-Tree and the BST is that the B+-Tree stores records only at the leaf nodes.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

Question 24

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A list is

Select one:

a. An ADT for storing and retrieving data

b. A tree data structure

c. Finite ordered sequence of data items

d. A collection of operations to implement an ADT

The correct answer is: Finite ordered sequence of data items

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Which of the following is NOT one of the buffer pool heuristics defined in the text : (select the best answer)

Select one:

a. FIFO

b. LIFO

c. LRU

d. LFU

The correct answer is: LIFO

Question 26

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Which of the following is not one of the general approaches to search algorithms:

Select one:

a. Buffer cache access methods

b. Sequential and list methods

c. Direct access by key value (hashing)

d. Tree indexing methods

The correct answer is: Buffer cache access methods

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Which of the following is not a mathematical proof technique?

Select one:

a. Proof by mathematical induction

b. Proof by contradiction

c. Direct proof

d. Proof by consensus

The correct answer is: Proof by consensus

Question 28

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A tree whose internal nodes all have exactly K children is called a K-ary tree.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

Question 29

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The freelist …

Select one:

a. Provides access to memory within the operating system that has not yet been allocated

b. Provides access to memory objects which have no Big O ( n ) time.

c. Facilitates and encourages the use of the new operator.

d. Holds the list nodes that are no longer in use.

The correct answer is: Holds the list nodes that are no longer in use.

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A full binary tree has a restricted shape which starts at the root and fills the tree by levels from left to right.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

Question 31

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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

for (int i = 1; i <= n; i *= 2) {

for (int j = 0; j < n; j++) {

count++;

}

}

Option 1. O( 1 )

Option 2. O( 2n )

Option 3. O( n log n )

Option 4. O( n2 )

Select one:

a. Option 1

b. Option 2

c. Option 3

d. Option 4

Explanation: Here the outer loop is done log n times and the inner loop is done n times, so T(n) = n log n. (Note that the default base for logarithms in Computer Science is 2.)

The correct answer is: Option 3

Question 32

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A leaf is any node that:

Select one:

a. Has one child

b. Is an internal node with no ancestors

c. Is any node with two empty children

d. Is the ancestor of the root node

The correct answer is: Is any node with two empty children

Question 33

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For the following code fragment, select the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

// Towers of Hanoi

static void solveHanoi(int disks, char fromPole, char toPole, char withPole) {

if (disks >= 1) {

solveHanoi(disks-1, fromPole, withPole, toPole);

moveDisk(fromPole, toPole);

solveHanoi(disks-1, withPole, toPole, fromPole);

}

}

static void moveDisk(char fromPole, char toPole) {

moves++;

}

Option 1. O( n )

Option 2. O( 2n )

Option 3. O( n log n )

Option 4. O( n2 )

Select one:

a. Option 1

b. Option 2

c. Option 3

d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 2

Question 34

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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

function ( n ) {

sum1 = 0;

for (k=1; k<=n; k*=2)

for (j=1; j<=n; j++)

sum1++;

}

Choice 1. Θ ( n )

Choice 2. O( 2n )

Choice 3. Θ( n log n )

Choice 4. Ω( n2 )

(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3

Question 35

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Asymptotic Algorithm Analysis is primarily concerned with:

Select one:

a. The size of the constant in the algorithm running time equation

b. The speed of the computing running the algorithm

c. The speed of the compiler

d. The growth rate demonstrated in the algorithm running time equation

The correct answer is: The growth rate demonstrated in the algorithm running time equation

Question 36

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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

static int function ( n ) {

sum = 0;

for (i=1; i<=n; i++)

sum += n;

return sum;

}

Choice 1. Ω( n2 )

Choice 2. Ω( log n2 )

Choice 3. Θ( n log n )

Choice 4. O ( n )

(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 4

Question 37

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The benefit of a quicksort is that it provides excellent performance in both the average and worst case:

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

Question 38

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If A={1, 2, 3, 4} and B={4, 5, 6}, find A∪ B .

Select one:

a. {1,2,3,4,4,5,6}

b. {4}

c. {x | x is all positive integers}

d. {1,2,3,4,5,6}

The correct answer is: {1,2,3,4,5,6}

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The weighted union rule joins a tree with fewer nodes to a tree with more nodes by making the smaller tree’s root point to the root of the larger tree.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

Question 40

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A compound computed search that combines a binary search to get close to the required record and then uses sequential search to find the item is referred to as a/an:

Select one:

a. Zipf search

b. An Exact match search

c. A Dictionary search

d. bit map vector search

The correct answer is: A Dictionary search

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The process of storing records in the order that they were added to a file is called:

Select one:

a. Entry-sequenced file

b. Binary Sequenced file

c. LIFO file format

d. Tombstone approach

The correct answer is: Entry-sequenced file

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Each record of a database normally has a unique identifier called the:

Select one:

a. Secondary Key

b. Primary index

c. Primary key

d. Index key

The correct answer is: Primary key

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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

static int function ( n ) {

for (k=0; k<n; k++)

A[k] = k;

return A[k];

}

Choice 1. Θ ( n log n )

Choice 2. O( 2n )

Choice 3. O( n )

Choice 4. Ω( n2 )

(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3

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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

// Recursive Fibonacci generator

static long fibr(int n) {

if ((n == 1) || (n == 2)) return 1; // Base case

return fibr(n-1) + fibr(n-2); // Recursive call

}

Option 1. O( n )

Option 2. O( 2n )

Option 3. O( n log n )

Option 4. O( n2 )

Select one:

a. Option 1

b. Option 2

c. Option 3

d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 2

Question 45

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A traversal that visits each node after visiting its children is called:

Select one:

a. Preorder Traversal

b. Postorder Traversal

c. Inorder Traversal

d. Outoforder Traversal

The correct answer is: Postorder Traversal

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True/False: Big Theta (Θ) indicates that the Upper and Lower bounds of an algorithm are the same.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

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A sort algorithm that uses two nested loops with the inner loop moving through the array from bottom to top is called the:

Select one:

a. Insertion sort

b. Bubble sort

c. Inversion sort

d. Selection sort

The correct answer is: Bubble sort

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The most time consuming of the following operations on an array based list implementation is:

Select one:

a. Inserting a new element at position n-1 in the list where n is the number of elements in the list.

b. Inserting a new element into the head of the list.

c. Removing an element at position n-1 within the list

d. Removing an element from the tail of the list.

The correct answer is: Inserting a new element into the head of the list.

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A coding scheme that replaces repeated occurrences of strings with a pointer to the location in the file of the first occurrence of the string is called Ziv-Lempel coding.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

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Internal Fragmentation refers to: (select the best answer)

Select one:

a. Space that is left empty because records do not fit evenly into a sector

b. Space allocated to a file that is not physically adjacent on the disk drive

c. Space that is left empty because records do not fit evenly into a sector or Space allocated to a file that is not physically adjacent

d. None of the options

The correct answer is: Space that is left empty because records do not fit evenly into a sector or Space allocated to a file that is not physically adjacent

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True/False: There is always one most efficient algorithm to solve a particular problem.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

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A sorting algorithm that assigns records to bins and then relies on some other sorting technique to sort the records within each bin called:

Select one:

a. Radix Sort

b. Quicksort

c. Hash sort

d. Bucket sort

The correct answer is: Bucket sort

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In a queue, placing new items in the queue is referred to as a push and taking an item out of the queue is called a pop.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

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A binary tree traversal that lists every node in the tree exactly once is called:

Select one:

a. a Traversal

b. A visitor design pattern

c. An enumeration

d. Natural ordering sequence

The correct answer is: An enumeration

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A finite set of one or more nodes such that there is one designated node call the root is a: (select the best answer)

Select one:

a. Parent root

b. a B+ tree data structure

c. Index

d. Tree

The correct answer is: Tree

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An important advantage of the sequential tree implementation is that (select the best answer):

Select one:

a. It is an extremely shallow tree

b. The data structure can be transmitted between computers

c. It saves space because no pointers are stored

d. It uses dynamic nodes

The correct answer is: It saves space because no pointers are stored

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Which of the following items is NOT true for Array-Based Lists (please select the best choice):

Choice 1. Insertion and deletion operations are ( n )

Choice 2. Direct access of an item in the array is ( 1 )

Choice 3. Space used grows dynamically as the array is populated

Choice 4. Array contains wasted space if array positions are not full

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3

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A linear index is an index file organized as a sequence of key/pointer pairs where the keys are in a sorter order.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

Question 59

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For the following code fragment, select the option which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

static int function ( n ) {

sum = 0;

for (i=1; i<=n; i++)

sum += n;

return sum;

}

Option 1. Ω( n2 )

Option 2. Θ ( n )

Option 3. O( log n )

Option 4. O( 2n )

(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 2

Question 60

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The lower bound for the growth of the Algorithms running time is represented by (please the best answer):

1. Big Oh (O)

2. Big Omega (Ω)

3. Big Theta (Θ)

4. Exponential growth

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 2

Question 61

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A solution is said to be efficient if it:

Select one:

a. Solves the problem within the required resource constraints

b. Executes faster than other solutions

c. Is completed in the fewest number of steps

d. Can be explained in the context of Big-Oh notation

The correct answer is: Solves the problem within the required resource constraints

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In a stack which option would access the 3rd element from the top of the stack S

Option 1. S.push(-1);

Option 2. S.dequeue(-3);

Option 3. S.pop();

S.pop();

S.pop();

Option 4. S.pop(n-3);

Select one:

a. Option 1

b. Option 2

c. Option 3

d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 3

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According to textbook by Shaffer, a heap data structure has two properties which are:

Select one:

a. every node stores a value less than or equal to that of its children and it is a complete binary tree

b. it is a min-heap and is partially ordered

c. it is a complete binary tree and the values stored in it are partially ordered

d. it is a priority queue and is in Θ( n )

The correct answer is: it is a complete binary tree and the values stored in it are partially ordered

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The quicksort is typically slower than the heapsort by a constant factor.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

Question 65

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Which of the following is NOT true for Linked Lists structures (please select the best choice):

Choice 1. Insertion and deletion are ( 1 ).

Choice 2. Direct access of an item in the list structure is ( n ).

Choice 3. Space grows with number of elements.

Choice 4. There is no overhead associated with elements in the list structure

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 4

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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

for (int i = 0; i < a.length; i++) {

System.out.println(a[i]);

}

Option 1. O( n )

Option 2. O( 2n )

Option 3. O( n log n )

Option 4. O( n2 )

Select one:

a. Option 1

b. Option 2

c. Option 3

d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 1

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Secondary storage is characterized by the following:

Select one:

a. It is persistent

b. It is faster than primary storage

c. It is volatile

d. It is more expensive than primary storage

The correct answer is: It is persistent

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For the following code fragment, select the option which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

/** @return Position of largest value in "A“ */

static int largest(int[] A) {

int currlarge = 0; // Position of largest

for (int i=1; i<A.length; i++)

if (A[currlarge] < A[i])

currlarge = i; // Remember pos

return currlarge; // Return largest pos

}

Choice 1. Θ ( n )

Choice 2. O( 2n )

Choice 3. Θ( n log n )

Choice 4. Ω( n2 )

(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 1

Question 69

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The upper bound for the growth of the Algorithms running time is represented by (please select the best answer):

1. Big Oh (O)

2. Big Omega (Ω)

3. Big Theta (Θ)

4. Exponential growth

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 1

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Data is stored within the disk drive on the: (select the best answer)

Select one:

a. Spindle

b. Platter

c. Cylinder

d. Sector

The correct answer is: Platter

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A sequential tree can be represented using a bit vector?

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

Question 72

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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

function ( n ) {

sum2 = 0;

for (k=1; k<=n; k*=2)

for (j=1; j<=k; j++)

sum2++;

}

Choice 1. O( 2n )

Choice 2. Θ ( n )

Choice 3. Θ( n log n )

Choice 4. Ω( n2 )

(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 2

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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

if (a.length > 0) {

return a[a.length - 1];

} else {

throw new NoSuchElementException();

}

Option 1. O( 1 )

Option 2. O( 2n )

Option 3. O( n log n )

Option 4. O( n2 )

Select one:

a. Option 1

b. Option 2

c. Option 3

d. Option 4

Explanation: Here n = a.length, and T(n) = 1.

The correct answer is: Option 1

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Recursion is when an algorithm uses a series of loop structures to repeat an operation until the answer has been computed.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

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The process of associating a key with the location of a corresponding data record is called folding.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

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An ADT is:

Select one:

a. A type together with a collection of operations to manipulate the type

b. An implementation of a flyweight design pattern

c. The realization of a data type as a software component

d. An implementation in java of a class for a data type

The correct answer is: The realization of a data type as a software component

Question 77

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Enqueue and Dequeue are notations associated with which data structure:

Select one:

a. Queue

b. Stack

c. List

d. Array

The correct answer is: Queue

Question 78

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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

function ( n ) {

sum1 = 0;

for (i=1; i<=n; i++)

for (j=1; j<=n; j++)

sum1++;

}

Choice 1. Θ ( n2 )

Choice 2. O( 2n )

Choice 3. Θ( n log n )

Choice 4. Ω( log n2 )

(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 1

Question 79

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Which of the following is not a characteristic of an algorithm?

Select one:

a. It must be correct

b. It must be composed of concrete steps

c. It can have no ambiguity

d. It must be composed of an infinite number of steps.

The correct answer is: It must be composed of an infinite number of steps.

Question 80

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Setting the dirty bit causes what action to be performed on a block: (select the best answer)

Select one:

a. It is deleted because it is no longer consistent

b. It flushes or writes the block out to the disk

c. Refreshes the data by re-reading the block

d. It cleans the cache by flushing all data from the cache

The correct answer is: It flushes or writes the block out to the disk

Question 81

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A traversal that visits the left subtree, then the node, and then the right subtree is called:

Select one:

a. Preorder Traversal

b. Postorder Traversal

c. Inorder Traversal

d. Outoforder Traversal

The correct answer is: Inorder Traversal

Question 82

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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

/** @return The position of an element in sorted array A with value k. If k is not in A,return A.length. */

static int binary(int[] A, int k) {

int l = -1; // Set l and r

int r = A.length; // beyond array bounds

while (l+1 != r) { // Stop when l, r meet

int i = (l+r)/2; // Check middle

if (k < A[i]) r = i; // In left half

if (k == A[i]) return i; // Found it

if (k > A[i]) l = i; // In right half

}

return A.length; // Search value not in A

}

Choice 1. Θ ( n )

Choice 2. O( 2n )

Choice 3. O( log n )

Choice 4. Ω( n2 )

(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3

Question 83

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In linked lists there are no NULL links in:

Select one:

a. Single linked list

b. Linear doubly linked list

c. Circular linked list

d. None of these

The correct answer is: Circular linked list

Question 84

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The process of determining if two objects are in the same set and then merging those sets is called:

Select one:

a. a Union Operation

b. Union / Find

c. a Weighted Union

d. a Merge Operation

The correct answer is: Union / Find

Question 85

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What is the role of the pivot in a quicksort algorithm?

Select one:

a. It identifies the maxkey value

b. It specifies the point where the array will be subdivided into partitions and each partition then sorted

c. It defines the sequence for merging in the sort

d. It indicates the index of the current record being compared

The correct answer is: It specifies the point where the array will be subdivided into partitions and each partition then sorted

Question 86

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When big-Oh and coincide, we indicate this by using (select the best answer):

1. Big Oh (O)

2. Big Omega (Ω)

3. Big Theta (Θ)

4. Exponential growth

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3

Question 87

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A traversal of a general tree that traverses the roots subtrees from left to right, then visits the root is called a preorder traversal.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

Question 88

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Which of the following is NOT one of the design patterns outlined in our text.

Select one:

a. Flyweight

b. Visitor

c. Composite

d. Synergy

The correct answer is: Synergy

Question 89

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Push and Pop are notations associated with which data structure:

Select one:

a. Queue

b. Stack

c. List

d. Array

The correct answer is: Stack

Question 90

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True/False: The stack data structure is implemented as a LIFO structure (last in first out)

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

Question 91

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An algorithm that breaks a file to be sorted in smaller files called runs which are sorted and eventually put back together resulting in a sorted file is called:

Select one:

a. Quicksort algorithm

b. Replacement sort algorithm

c. An indexed key sort algorithm

d. Mergesort algorithm

The correct answer is: Mergesort algorithm

Question 92

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The process of storing blocks of data in main memory after reading from disk is referred to as:

Select one:

a. Buffering

b. Hashing

c. Pooling

d. Indexing

The correct answer is: Buffering

Question 93

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For the following code fragment, select option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

for (i=0; i<n; i++) {

//

// Search in array a for smallest element starting at i to n-1

//

minIndex = findSmallestElement(a, i, n-1)

a[i] = a[minIndex];

}

findSmallestElement( int a[], int i, int n ) {

int largest = a[i];

while(i<n) {

if(a[i] >a[largest])

largest = i;

i++;

}

return(largest);

}

Option 1. O( n )

Option 2. O( 2n )

Option 3. O( n log n )

Option 4. O( n2 )

Select one:

a. Option 1

b. Option 2

c. Option 3

d. Option 4

index-of-smallest element in a[i..j] takes j-i+1 operations

• n + (n-1) + (n-2) + (n-3) + ... + 3 + 2 + 1

• this is n2

The correct answer is: Option 4

Question 94

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The depth of node H in the following tree is:

Select one:

a. 3

b. 2

c. 4

d. 1

The correct answer is: 3

Question 95

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The implementation of a data type as a data structure is the physical form of an ADT.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

Question 96

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A method that is designed to create extremely shallow trees is called:

Select one:

a. Dynamic node implementation

b. Union/Find

c. The list of children method

d. Path compression

The correct answer is: Path compression

Question 97

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True/False: Big Theta (Θ) indicates that the Upper and Lower bounds of an algorithm are the same.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

Question 98

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According to the properties of logarithms, log(nm) =

Note: Due to issues with HTML formatting, an exponent is represented by preceding it with the ^ symbol. As such x^2 is equivalent to x2.

Select one:

a. log n – log m

b. n log n

c. log n + log m

d. log(n^m)

The correct answer is: log n + log m

Question 99

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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

static int function ( n ) {

for (k=0; k<n; k++)

A[k] = k;

return A[k];

}

Choice 1. O ( n2 )

Choice 2. O( 2n )

Choice 3. Ω( n2 )

Choice 4. Θ ( n )

(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 4

Question 100

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The full binary tree theorem states “the number of leaves in an empty full binary tree is one more than the number of internal nodes”

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

Question 101

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A significant benefit to using an index to hold and sort keys to a file is:

Select one:

a. Smaller keys require less I/O

b. The entire sort can always be completed in memory

c. The head of the disk drive does not need to move

d. There is no seek time added to the latency of I/O operations

The correct answer is: Smaller keys require less I/O

Question 102

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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

function ( n ) {

sum2 = 0;

for (i=1; i<=n; i++)

for (j=1; j<=i; j++)

sum2++;

}

}

Choice 1. Ω ( 1 )

Choice 2. O( 2n )

Choice 3. Θ( n2 )

Choice 4. Ω( n2 )

(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3

Question 103

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The best asymptotic analysis for the selection sort is represented by (select the best option):

Option 1. O( n log n )

Option 2. Ω( n2 )

Option 3. O( n2 )

Option 4. Θ( n2 )

Select one:

a. Option 1

b. Option 2

c. Option 3

d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 4

Question 104

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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

public static int binarySearch(int[] a, int key) {

int left = 0;

int right = a.length-1;

while (left <= right) {

int mid = left + (right-left)/2;

if (key < a[mid]) right = mid-1;

else if (key > a[mid]) left = mid+1;

else return mid;

}

//not found

return -1;

}

Option 1. Ω( 1 ), O( log n )

Option 2. Ω( n ), O( 2n )

Option 3. Θ( n log n )

Option 4. Θ( log n )

Select one:

a. Option 1

b. Option 2

c. Option 3

d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 1

Question 105

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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

static int function ( n ) {

sum = 0;

for (i=1; i<=n; i++)

sum += n;

return sum;

}

Choice 1. Ω( n2 )

Choice 2. Θ ( n2 )

Choice 3. O( log n )

Choice 4. O( n )

(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 4

Question 106

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Inserting or removing an item at position n-1 within a linked list has the same cost in terms ( n ) time as the same operation in an array based implementation of a list.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

A solution is said to be efficient if it:

Select one:

a. Solves the problem within the required resource constraints

b. Executes faster than other solutions

c. Is completed in the fewest number of steps

d. Can be explained in the context of Big-Oh notation

The correct answer is: Solves the problem within the required resource constraints

Question 2

Question text

An ADT is:

Select one:

a. A type together with a collection of operations to manipulate the type

b. An implementation of a flyweight design pattern

c. The realization of a data type as a software component

d. An implementation in java of a class for a data type

The correct answer is: The realization of a data type as a software component

Question 3

Question text

The implementation of a data type as a data structure is the physical form of an ADT.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

Question 4

Question text

Which of the following is NOT one of the design patterns outlined in our text.

Select one:

a. Flyweight

b. Visitor

c. Composite

d. Synergy

The correct answer is: Synergy

Question 5

Question text

If A={1, 2, 3, 4} and B={4, 5, 6}, find A∪ B .

Select one:

a. {1,2,3,4,4,5,6}

b. {4}

c. {x | x is all positive integers}

d. {1,2,3,4,5,6}

The correct answer is: {1,2,3,4,5,6}

Question 6

Question text

According to the properties of logarithms, log(nm) =

Note: Due to issues with HTML formatting, an exponent is represented by preceding it with the ^ symbol. As such x^2 is equivalent to x2.

Select one:

a. log n – log m

b. n log n

c. log n + log m

d. log(n^m)

The correct answer is: log n + log m

Question 7

Question text

Recursion is when an algorithm uses a series of loop structures to repeat an operation until the answer has been computed.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

Question 8

Question text

Which of the following is not a mathematical proof technique?

Select one:

a. Proof by mathematical induction

b. Proof by contradiction

c. Direct proof

d. Proof by consensus

The correct answer is: Proof by consensus

Question 9

Question text

Which of the following is not a characteristic of an algorithm?

Select one:

a. It must be correct

b. It must be composed of concrete steps

c. It can have no ambiguity

d. It must be composed of an infinite number of steps.

The correct answer is: It must be composed of an infinite number of steps

The upper bound for the growth of the Algorithms running time is represented by:

Select one:

a. Big Oh (O)

b. Big Omega (Ω)

c. Big Theta (Θ)

d. Exponential growth

The correct answer is: Big Oh (O)

Question 2

Question text

Asymptotic Algorithm Analysis is primarily concerned with:

Select one:

a. The size of the constant in the algorithm running time equation

b. The speed of the computing running the algorithm

c. The speed of the compiler

d. The growth rate demonstrated in the algorithm running time equation

The correct answer is: The growth rate demonstrated in the algorithm running time equation

Question 3

Question text

True/False: Big Theta (Θ) indicates that the Upper and Lower bounds of an algorithm are the same.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

Question 4

Question text

For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

for (int i = 0; i < a.length; i++) {

System.out.println(a[i]);

}

Option 1. O( n )

Option 2. O( 2n )

Option 3. O( n log n )

Option 4. O( n2 )

Select one:

a. Option 1

b. Option 2

c. Option 3

d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 1

Question 5

Question text

For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

for (int i = 1; i <= n; i *= 2) {

for (int j = 0; j < n; j++) {

count++;

}

}

Option 1. O( 1 )

Option 2. O( 2n )

Option 3. O( n log n )

Option 4. O( n2 )

Select one:

a. Option 1

b. Option 2

c. Option 3

d. Option 4

Explanation: Here the outer loop is done log n times and the inner loop is done n times, so T(n) = n log n. (Note that the default base for logarithms in Computer Science is 2.)

The correct answer is: Option 3

Question 6

Question text

For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

if (a.length > 0) {

return a[a.length - 1];

} else {

throw new NoSuchElementException();

}

Option 1. O( 1 )

Option 2. O( 2n )

Option 3. O( n log n )

Option 4. O( n2 )

Select one:

a. Option 1

b. Option 2

c. Option 3

d. Option 4

Explanation: Here n = a.length, and T(n) = 1.

The correct answer is: Option 1

Question 7

Question text

For the following code fragment, select the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

// Towers of Hanoi

static void solveHanoi(int disks, char fromPole, char toPole, char withPole) {

if (disks >= 1) {

solveHanoi(disks-1, fromPole, withPole, toPole);

moveDisk(fromPole, toPole);

solveHanoi(disks-1, withPole, toPole, fromPole);

}

}

static void moveDisk(char fromPole, char toPole) {

moves++;

}

Option 1. O( n )

Option 2. O( 2n )

Option 3. O( n log n )

Option 4. O( n2 )

Select one:

a. Option 1

b. Option 2

c. Option 3

d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 2

Question 8

Question text

For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

public static int binarySearch(int[] a, int key) {

int left = 0;

int right = a.length-1;

while (left <= right) {

int mid = left + (right-left)/2;

if (key < a[mid]) right = mid-1;

else if (key > a[mid]) left = mid+1;

else return mid;

}

//not found

return -1;

}

Option 1. Ω( 1 ), O( log n )

Option 2. Ω( n ), O( 2n )

Option 3. Θ( n log n )

Option 4. Θ( log n )

Select one:

a. Option 1

b. Option 2

c. Option 3

d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 1

Question 9

Question text

For the following code fragment, select option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

for (i=0; i<n; i++) {

//

// Search in array a for smallest element starting at i to n-1

//

minIndex = findSmallestElement(a, i, n-1)

a[i] = a[minIndex];

}

findSmallestElement( int a[], int i, int n ) {

int largest = a[i];

while(i<n) {

if(a[i] >a[largest])

largest = i;

i++;

}

return(largest);

}

Option 1. O( n )

Option 2. O( 2n )

Option 3. O( n log n )

Option 4. O( n2 )

Select one:

a. Option 1

b. Option 2

c. Option 3

d. Option 4

index-of-smallest element in a[i..j] takes j-i+1 operations

• n + (n-1) + (n-2) + (n-3) + ... + 3 + 2 + 1

• this is n2

The correct answer is: Option 4

Question 10

Question text

For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

// Recursive Fibonacci generator

static long fibr(int n) {

if ((n == 1) || (n == 2)) return 1; // Base case

return fibr(n-1) + fibr(n-2); // Recursive call

}

Option 1. O( n )

Option 2. O( 2n )

Option 3. O( n log n )

Option 4. O( n2 )

Select one:

a. Option 1

b. Option 2

c. Option 3

d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 2

Top of Form

A list is

Select one:

a. An ADT for storing and retrieving data

b. A tree data structure

c. Finite ordered sequence of data items

d. A collection of operations to implement an ADT

The correct answer is: Finite ordered sequence of data items

Question 2

Question text

A list is said to be empty when all of its elements have a zero (0) value

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

Question 3

Question text

The most time consuming of the following operations on an array based list implementation is:

Select one:

a. Inserting a new element at position n-1 in the list where n is the number of elements in the list.

b. Inserting a new element into the head of the list.

c. Removing an element at position n-1 within the list

d. Removing an element from the tail of the list.

The correct answer is: Inserting a new element into the head of the list.

Question 4

Question text

A linked list implementation relies upon static memory allocation where static refers to the requirement to pre-allocate all of the memory that will be used for the list.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

Question 5

Question text

A linked list creates order through the use of pointers that link one element to another.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

Question 6

Question text

Inserting or removing an item at position n-1 within a linked list has the same cost in terms ( n ) time as the same operation in an array based implementation of a list.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

Question 7

Question text

The freelist …

Select one:

a. Provides access to memory within the operating system that has not yet been allocated

b. Provides access to memory objects which have no Big O ( n ) time.

c. Facilitates and encourages the use of the new operator.

d. Holds the list nodes that are no longer in use.

The correct answer is: Holds the list nodes that are no longer in use.

Question 8

Question text

In a queue, placing new items in the queue is referred to as a push and taking an item out of the queue is called a pop.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

Question 9

Question text

In linked lists there are no NULL links in:

Select one:

a. Single linked list

b. Linear doubly linked list

c. Circular linked list

d. None of these

The correct answer is: Circular linked list

Question 10

Question text

In a stack which option would access the 3rd element from the top of the stack S

Option 1. S.push(-1);

Option 2. S.dequeue(-3);

Option 3. S.pop();

S.pop();

S.pop();

Option 4. S.pop(n-3);

Select one:

a. Option 1

b. Option 2

c. Option 3

d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 3

Bottom of Form

A leaf is any node that:

Select one:

a. Has one child

b. Is an internal node with no ancestors

c. Is any node with two empty children

d. Is the ancestor of the root node

The correct answer is: Is any node with two empty children

Question 2

Question text

The full binary tree theorem states “the number of leaves in an empty full binary tree is one more than the number of internal nodes”

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

Question 3

Question text

The process for visiting all of the nodes of a binary tree in some order is called a traversal.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

Question 4

Question text

A full binary tree has a restricted shape which starts at the root and fills the tree by levels from left to right.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

Question 5

Question text

A binary tree traversal that lists every node in the tree exactly once is called:

Select one:

a. a Traversal

b. A visitor design pattern

c. An enumeration

d. Natural ordering sequence

The correct answer is: An enumeration

Question 6

Question text

A preorder traversal visits every node starting at the leaf nodes and working up the tree.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

Question 7

Question text

Correctly identify the following heap structure by selecting the best answer:

Select one:

a. partially ordered heap

b. max-heap structure

c. priority heap

d. min-heap structure

The correct answer is: max-heap structure

Question 8

Question text

Select the answer that best defines Huffman Coding:

Select one:

a. A set of coding rules that is typically used for compression

b. A fixed length coding scheme for character representation

c. A tree structure that trades off space and time requirements to provide a more efficient priority queue

d. An approach of assigning codes to characters such that the frequency length of the code depends upon the relative frequency of the corresponding character in use

The correct answer is: An approach of assigning codes to characters such that the frequency length of the code depends upon the relative frequency of the corresponding character in use

Question 9

Question text

The depth of node H in the following tree is:

Select one:

a. 3

b. 2

c. 4

d. 1

The correct answer is: 3

Question 10

Question text

According to textbook by Shaffer, a heap data structure has two properties which are:

Select one:

a. every node stores a value less than or equal to that of its children and it is a complete binary tree

b. it is a min-heap and is partially ordered

c. it is a complete binary tree and the values stored in it are partially ordered

d. it is a priority queue and is in Θ( n )

The correct answer is: it is a complete binary tree and the values stored in it are partially ordered

Top of Form

A finite set of one or more nodes such that there is one designated node call the root is a: (select the best answer)

Select one:

a. Parent root

b. a B+ tree data structure

c. Index

d. Tree

The correct answer is: Tree

Question 2

Question text

A collection of one or more trees is called:

Select one:

a. Trees

b. Multiple Spanning Trees

c. a Forest

d. Traversals

The correct answer is: a Forest

Question 3

Question text

The process of determining if two objects are in the same set and then merging those sets is called:

Select one:

a. a Union Operation

b. Union / Find

c. a Weighted Union

d. a Merge Operation

The correct answer is: Union / Find

Question 4

Question text

A traversal of a general tree that traverses the roots subtrees from left to right, then visits the root is called a preorder traversal.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

Question 5

Question text

A method that is designed to create extremely shallow trees is called:

Select one:

a. Dynamic node implementation

b. Union/Find

c. The list of children method

d. Path compression

The correct answer is: Path compression

Question 6

Question text

A tree whose internal nodes all have exactly K children is called a K-ary tree.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

Question 7

Question text

An important advantage of the sequential tree implementation is that (select the best answer):

Select one:

a. It is an extremely shallow tree

b. The data structure can be transmitted between computers

c. It saves space because no pointers are stored

d. It uses dynamic nodes

The correct answer is: It saves space because no pointers are stored

Question 8

Question text

A sequential tree can be represented using a bit vector?

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

Question 9

Question text

The list of children approach uses both pointers and an array structure to represent the tree.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

Question 10

Question text

The weighted union rule joins a tree with fewer nodes to a tree with more nodes by making the smaller tree’s root point to the root of the larger tree.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

Bottom of Form

Top of Form

The best asymptotic analysis for the selection sort is represented by (select the best option):

Option 1. O( n log n )

Option 2. Ω( n2 )

Option 3. O( n2 )

Option 4. Θ( n2 )

Select one:

a. Option 1

b. Option 2

c. Option 3

d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 4

Question 2

Question text

A sort algorithm that uses two nested loops with the inner loop moving through the array from bottom to top is called the:

Select one:

a. Insertion sort

b. Bubble sort

c. Inversion sort

d. Selection sort

The correct answer is: Bubble sort

Question 3

Question text

A sort that features a limit of n-1 of record swaps is called:

Select one:

a. Insertion sort

b. Bubble sort

c. Inversion sort

d. Selection sort

The correct answer is: Selection sort

Question 4

Question text

An exchange sort is one where: (select the best answer)

Select one:

a. Records in an unsorted list are moved to a sorted list

b. Adjacent records in the list and compared and exchanged

c. An inversion is executed

d. The sorting algorithm is said to be stable

The correct answer is: Adjacent records in the list and compared and exchanged

Question 5

Question text

A sort where the list is divided into halves, the halves sorted and these two halves are merged is called:

Select one:

a. Mergesort

b. Binary sort

c. Quicksort

d. Heapsort

The correct answer is: Mergesort

Question 6

Question text

The benefit of a quicksort is that it provides excellent performance in both the average and worst case:

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

Question 7

Question text

What is the role of the pivot in a quicksort algorithm?

Select one:

a. It identifies the maxkey value

b. It specifies the point where the array will be subdivided into partitions and each partition then sorted

c. It defines the sequence for merging in the sort

d. It indicates the index of the current record being compared

The correct answer is: It specifies the point where the array will be subdivided into partitions and each partition then sorted

Question 8

Question text

A sorting algorithm that assigns records to bins and then relies on some other sorting technique to sort the records within each bin called:

Select one:

a. Radix Sort

b. Quicksort

c. Hash sort

d. Bucket sort

The correct answer is: Bucket sort

Question 9

Question text

The processing time or cost of a sort is defined by the number of comparisons and exchanges that must be made during processing. What is the average cost of the heapsort?:

Option 1. O( n log n )

Option 2. Ω( n2 )

Option 3. O( n2 )

Option 4. Θ( n2 )

Select one:

a. Option 1

b. Option 2

c. Option 3

d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 1

Question 10

Question text

The quicksort is typically slower than the heapsort by a constant factor.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

Bottom of Form

Setting the dirty bit causes what action to be performed on a block: (select the best answer)

Select one:

a. It is deleted because it is no longer consistent

b. It flushes or writes the block out to the disk

c. Refreshes the data by re-reading the block

d. It cleans the cache by flushing all data from the cache

The correct answer is: It flushes or writes the block out to the disk

Question 2

Question text

Which of the following is NOT one of the buffer pool heuristics defined in the text : (select the best answer)

Select one:

a. FIFO

b. LIFO

c. LRU

d. LFU

The correct answer is: LIFO

Question 3

Question text

A technique that allows a programmer to use more main memory than exists in the computer is called: (select the best answer)

Select one:

a. Buffer cache

b. Random access memory

c. Secondary storage

d. Virtual memory

The correct answer is: Virtual memory

Question 4

Question text

Internal Fragmentation refers to: (select the best answer)

Select one:

a. Space that is left empty because records do not fit evenly into a sector

b. Space allocated to a file that is not physically adjacent on the disk drive

c. Space that is left empty because records do not fit evenly into a sector or Space allocated to a file that is not physically adjacent

d. None of the options

The correct answer is: Space that is left empty because records do not fit evenly into a sector or Space allocated to a file that is not physically adjacent

Question 5

Question text

Data is stored within the disk drive on the: (select the best answer)

Select one:

a. Spindle

b. Platter

c. Cylinder

d. Sector

The correct answer is: Platter

Question 6

Question text

The process of storing blocks of data in main memory after reading from disk is referred to as:

Select one:

a. Buffering

b. Hashing

c. Pooling

d. Indexing

The correct answer is: Buffering

Question 7

Question text

A characteristic of RAM (random access memory) is that it is persistent and is not lost when the power to a computer is turned off.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

Question 8

Question text

Secondary storage is characterized by the following:

Select one:

a. It is persistent

b. It is faster than primary storage

c. It is volatile

d. It is more expensive than primary storage

The correct answer is: It is persistent

Question 9

Question text

An algorithm that breaks a file to be sorted in smaller files called runs which are sorted and eventually put back together resulting in a sorted file is called:

Select one:

a. Quicksort algorithm

b. Replacement sort algorithm

c. An indexed key sort algorithm

d. Mergesort algorithm

The correct answer is: Mergesort algorithm

Question 10

Question text

A significant benefit to using an index to hold and sort keys to a file is:

Select one:

a. Smaller keys require less I/O

b. The entire sort can always be completed in memory

c. The head of the disk drive does not need to move

d. There is no seek time added to the latency of I/O operations

The correct answer is: Smaller keys require less I/O

Top of Form

Which of the following is not one of the general approaches to search algorithms:

Select one:

a. Buffer cache access methods

b. Sequential and list methods

c. Direct access by key value (hashing)

d. Tree indexing methods

The correct answer is: Buffer cache access methods

Question 2

Question text

A list that organizes the order of records within the list based upon patterns of actual record access is called a/an (select the best answer):

Select one:

a. Quadratic Binary search order

b. A Zipf Distribution

c. A Self-organizing list

d. A range query

The correct answer is: A Self-organizing list

Question 3

Question text

A compound computed search that combines a binary search to get close to the required record and then uses sequential search to find the item is referred to as a/an:

Select one:

a. Zipf search

b. An Exact match search

c. A Dictionary search

d. bit map vector search

The correct answer is: A Dictionary search

Question 4

Question text

A coding scheme that replaces repeated occurrences of strings with a pointer to the location in the file of the first occurrence of the string is called Ziv-Lempel coding.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

Question 5

Question text

The process of storing records in the order that they were added to a file is called:

Select one:

a. Entry-sequenced file

b. Binary Sequenced file

c. LIFO file format

d. Tombstone approach

The correct answer is: Entry-sequenced file

Question 6

Question text

The process of associating a key with the location of a corresponding data record is called folding.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

Question 7

Question text

Each record of a database normally has a unique identifier called the:

Select one:

a. Secondary Key

b. Primary index

c. Primary key

d. Index key

The correct answer is: Primary key

Question 8

Question text

A linear index is an index file organized as a sequence of key/pointer pairs where the keys are in a sorter order.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

Question 9

Question text

A tree data structure whose shape obeys the following definition,

o A node contains one or two keys

o Every internal node has either 2 children if it contains 1 key or 3 children if it contains two keys

o All leaves are at the same level in the tree

Is called a/an:

Select one:

a. B*-Tree

b. BST

c. B+-Tree

d. 2-3 tree

The correct answer is: 2-3 tree

Question 10

Question text

The most significant difference between the B+-Tree and the BST is that the B+-Tree stores records only at the leaf nodes.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

Bottom of Form

A traversal that visits the left subtree, then the node, and then the right subtree is called:

Select one:

a. Preorder Traversal

b. Postorder Traversal

c. Inorder Traversal

d. Outoforder Traversal

The correct answer is: Inorder Traversal

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Each record of a database normally has a unique identifier called the:

Select one:

a. Secondary Key

b. Primary index

c. Primary key

d. Index key

The correct answer is: Primary key

Question 3

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An ADT is:

Select one:

a. A type together with a collection of operations to manipulate the type

b. An implementation of a flyweight design pattern

c. The realization of a data type as a software component

d. An implementation in java of a class for a data type

The correct answer is: The realization of a data type as a software component

Question 4

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A linked list creates order through the use of pointers that link one element to another.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

Question 5

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The most significant difference between the B+-Tree and the BST is that the B+-Tree stores records only at the leaf nodes.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

Question 6

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A sequential tree can be represented using a bit vector?

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

Question 7

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In linked lists there are no NULL links in:

Select one:

a. Single linked list

b. Linear doubly linked list

c. Circular linked list

d. None of these

The correct answer is: Circular linked list

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Recursion is when an algorithm uses a series of loop structures to repeat an operation until the answer has been computed.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

Question 9

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A linked list implementation relies upon static memory allocation where static refers to the requirement to pre-allocate all of the memory that will be used for the list.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

Question 10

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The process of storing records in the order that they were added to a file is called:

Select one:

a. Entry-sequenced file

b. Binary Sequenced file

c. LIFO file format

d. Tombstone approach

The correct answer is: Entry-sequenced file

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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

static int function ( n ) {

for (k=0; k<n; k++)

A[k] = k;

return A[k];

}

Choice 1. O ( n2 )

Choice 2. O( 2n )

Choice 3. Ω( n2 )

Choice 4. Θ ( n )

(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 4

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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

for (int i = 0; i < a.length; i++) {

System.out.println(a[i]);

}

Option 1. O( n )

Option 2. O( 2n )

Option 3. O( n log n )

Option 4. O( n2 )

Select one:

a. Option 1

b. Option 2

c. Option 3

d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 1

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Inserting or removing an item at position n-1 within a linked list has the same cost in terms ( n ) time as the same operation in an array based implementation of a list.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

Question 14

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Which of the following is NOT one of the buffer pool heuristics defined in the text : (select the best answer)

Select one:

a. FIFO

b. LIFO

c. LRU

d. LFU

The correct answer is: LIFO

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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

for (int i = 1; i <= n; i *= 2) {

for (int j = 0; j < n; j++) {

count++;

}

}

Option 1. O( 1 )

Option 2. O( 2n )

Option 3. O( n log n )

Option 4. O( n2 )

Select one:

a. Option 1

b. Option 2

c. Option 3

d. Option 4

Explanation: Here the outer loop is done log n times and the inner loop is done n times, so T(n) = n log n. (Note that the default base for logarithms in Computer Science is 2.)

The correct answer is: Option 3

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The full binary tree theorem states “the number of leaves in an empty full binary tree is one more than the number of internal nodes”

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

Question 17

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The processing time or cost of a sort is defined by the number of comparisons and exchanges that must be made during processing. What is the average cost of the heapsort?:

Option 1. O( n log n )

Option 2. Ω( n2 )

Option 3. O( n2 )

Option 4. Θ( n2 )

Select one:

a. Option 1

b. Option 2

c. Option 3

d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 1

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When big-Oh and coincide, we indicate this by using (select the best answer):

1. Big Oh (O)

2. Big Omega (Ω)

3. Big Theta (Θ)

4. Exponential growth

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3

Question 19

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A list is said to be empty when all of its elements have a zero (0) value

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

Question 20

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True/False: Big Theta (Θ) indicates that the Upper and Lower bounds of an algorithm are the same.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

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A traversal of a general tree that traverses the roots subtrees from left to right, then visits the root is called a preorder traversal.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

Question 22

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Enqueue and Dequeue are notations associated with which data structure:

Select one:

a. Queue

b. Stack

c. List

d. Array

The correct answer is: Queue

Question 23

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A significant benefit to using an index to hold and sort keys to a file is:

Select one:

a. Smaller keys require less I/O

b. The entire sort can always be completed in memory

c. The head of the disk drive does not need to move

d. There is no seek time added to the latency of I/O operations

The correct answer is: Smaller keys require less I/O

Question 24

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A tree whose internal nodes all have exactly K children is called a K-ary tree.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

Question 25

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Which of the following is not a characteristic of an algorithm?

Select one:

a. It must be correct

b. It must be composed of concrete steps

c. It can have no ambiguity

d. It must be composed of an infinite number of steps.

The correct answer is: It must be composed of an infinite number of steps.

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For the following code fragment, select the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

// Towers of Hanoi

static void solveHanoi(int disks, char fromPole, char toPole, char withPole) {

if (disks >= 1) {

solveHanoi(disks-1, fromPole, withPole, toPole);

moveDisk(fromPole, toPole);

solveHanoi(disks-1, withPole, toPole, fromPole);

}

}

static void moveDisk(char fromPole, char toPole) {

moves++;

}

Option 1. O( n )

Option 2. O( 2n )

Option 3. O( n log n )

Option 4. O( n2 )

Select one:

a. Option 1

b. Option 2

c. Option 3

d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 2

Question 27

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For the following code fragment, select the option which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

static int function ( n ) {

sum = 0;

for (i=1; i<=n; i++)

sum += n;

return sum;

}

Option 1. Ω( n2 )

Option 2. Θ ( n )

Option 3. O( log n )

Option 4. O( 2n )

(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 2

Question 28

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True/False: There is always one most efficient algorithm to solve a particular problem.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

Question 29

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A technique that allows a programmer to use more main memory than exists in the computer is called: (select the best answer)

Select one:

a. Buffer cache

b. Random access memory

c. Secondary storage

d. Virtual memory

The correct answer is: Virtual memory

Question 30

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Question text

A sort that features a limit of n-1 of record swaps is called:

Select one:

a. Insertion sort

b. Bubble sort

c. Inversion sort

d. Selection sort

The correct answer is: Selection sort

Question 31

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Question text

A traversal that visits each node before visiting its children is called:

Select one:

a. Preorder traversal

b. Postorder traversal

c. Inorder Traversal

d. Outoforder Traversal

The correct answer is: Preorder traversal

Question 32

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Question text

A list that organizes the order of records within the list based upon patterns of actual record access is called a/an (select the best answer):

Select one:

a. Quadratic Binary search order

b. A Zipf Distribution

c. A Self-organizing list

d. A range query

The correct answer is: A Self-organizing list

Question 33

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True/False: The stack data structure is implemented as a LIFO structure (last in first out)

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

Question 34

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The process of determining if two objects are in the same set and then merging those sets is called:

Select one:

a. a Union Operation

b. Union / Find

c. a Weighted Union

d. a Merge Operation

The correct answer is: Union / Find

Question 35

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A sort algorithm that uses two nested loops with the inner loop moving through the array from bottom to top is called the:

Select one:

a. Insertion sort

b. Bubble sort

c. Inversion sort

d. Selection sort

The correct answer is: Bubble sort

Question 36

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Which of the following is NOT one of the design patterns outlined in our text.

Select one:

a. Flyweight

b. Visitor

c. Composite

d. Synergy

The correct answer is: Synergy

Question 37

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Push and Pop are notations associated with which data structure:

Select one:

a. Queue

b. Stack

c. List

d. Array

The correct answer is: Stack

Question 38

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The process of associating a key with the location of a corresponding data record is called folding.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

Question 39

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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

// Recursive Fibonacci generator

static long fibr(int n) {

if ((n == 1) || (n == 2)) return 1; // Base case

return fibr(n-1) + fibr(n-2); // Recursive call

}

Option 1. O( n )

Option 2. O( 2n )

Option 3. O( n log n )

Option 4. O( n2 )

Select one:

a. Option 1

b. Option 2

c. Option 3

d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 2

Question 40

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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

static int function ( n ) {

for (k=0; k<n; k++)

A[k] = k;

return A[k];

}

Choice 1. Θ ( n log n )

Choice 2. O( 2n )

Choice 3. O( n )

Choice 4. Ω( n2 )

(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3

Question 41

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Which of the following is not one of the general approaches to search algorithms:

Select one:

a. Buffer cache access methods

b. Sequential and list methods

c. Direct access by key value (hashing)

d. Tree indexing methods

The correct answer is: Buffer cache access methods

Question 42

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The weighted union rule joins a tree with fewer nodes to a tree with more nodes by making the smaller tree’s root point to the root of the larger tree.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

Question 43

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Question text

The list of children approach uses both pointers and an array structure to represent the tree.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

Question 44

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The depth of node H in the following tree is:

Select one:

a. 3

b. 2

c. 4

d. 1

The correct answer is: 3

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Data is stored within the disk drive on the: (select the best answer)

Select one:

a. Spindle

b. Platter

c. Cylinder

d. Sector

The correct answer is: Platter

Question 46

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The most time consuming of the following operations on an array based list implementation is:

Select one:

a. Inserting a new element at position n-1 in the list where n is the number of elements in the list.

b. Inserting a new element into the head of the list.

c. Removing an element at position n-1 within the list

d. Removing an element from the tail of the list.

The correct answer is: Inserting a new element into the head of the list.

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If A={1, 2, 3, 4} and B={4, 5, 6}, find A∪ B .

Select one:

a. {1,2,3,4,4,5,6}

b. {4}

c. {x | x is all positive integers}

d. {1,2,3,4,5,6}

The correct answer is: {1,2,3,4,5,6}

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For the following code fragment, select the option which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

/** @return Position of largest value in "A“ */

static int largest(int[] A) {

int currlarge = 0; // Position of largest

for (int i=1; i<A.length; i++)

if (A[currlarge] < A[i])

currlarge = i; // Remember pos

return currlarge; // Return largest pos

}

Choice 1. Θ ( n )

Choice 2. O( 2n )

Choice 3. Θ( n log n )

Choice 4. Ω( n2 )

(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 1

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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

function ( n ) {

sum1 = 0;

for (k=1; k<=n; k*=2)

for (j=1; j<=n; j++)

sum1++;

}

Choice 1. Θ ( n )

Choice 2. O( 2n )

Choice 3. Θ( n log n )

Choice 4. Ω( n2 )

(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3

Question 50

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The implementation of a data type as a data structure is the physical form of an ADT.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

Question 51

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An exchange sort is one where: (select the best answer)

Select one:

a. Records in an unsorted list are moved to a sorted list

b. Adjacent records in the list and compared and exchanged

c. An inversion is executed

d. The sorting algorithm is said to be stable

The correct answer is: Adjacent records in the list and compared and exchanged

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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

static int function ( n ) {

sum = 0;

for (j=1; j<=n; j++)

for (i=1; i<=j; i++)

sum++;

return sum;

}

Choice 1. Θ ( n )

Choice 2. O( 2n )

Choice 3. Θ( n2 )

Choice 4. Ω( n2 )

(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3

Question 53

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An important advantage of the sequential tree implementation is that (select the best answer):

Select one:

a. It is an extremely shallow tree

b. The data structure can be transmitted between computers

c. It saves space because no pointers are stored

d. It uses dynamic nodes

The correct answer is: It saves space because no pointers are stored

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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

function ( n ) {

sum1 = 0;

for (i=1; i<=n; i++)

for (j=1; j<=n; j++)

sum1++;

}

Choice 1. Θ ( n2 )

Choice 2. O( 2n )

Choice 3. Θ( n log n )

Choice 4. Ω( log n2 )

(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 1

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A sort where the list is divided into halves, the halves sorted and these two halves are merged is called:

Select one:

a. Mergesort

b. Binary sort

c. Quicksort

d. Heapsort

The correct answer is: Mergesort

Question 56

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A traversal that visits each node after visiting its children is called:

Select one:

a. Preorder Traversal

b. Postorder Traversal

c. Inorder Traversal

d. Outoforder Traversal

The correct answer is: Postorder Traversal

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The process for visiting all of the nodes of a binary tree in some order is called a traversal.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

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A collection of one or more trees is called:

Select one:

a. Trees

b. Multiple Spanning Trees

c. a Forest

d. Traversals

The correct answer is: a Forest

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The upper bound for the growth of the Algorithms running time is represented by (please select the best answer):

1. Big Oh (O)

2. Big Omega (Ω)

3. Big Theta (Θ)

4. Exponential growth

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 1

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Which of the following is not a mathematical proof technique?

Select one:

a. Proof by mathematical induction

b. Proof by contradiction

c. Direct proof

d. Proof by consensus

The correct answer is: Proof by consensus

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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

public static int binarySearch(int[] a, int key) {

int left = 0;

int right = a.length-1;

while (left <= right) {

int mid = left + (right-left)/2;

if (key < a[mid]) right = mid-1;

else if (key > a[mid]) left = mid+1;

else return mid;

}

//not found

return -1;

}

Option 1. Ω( 1 ), O( log n )

Option 2. Ω( n ), O( 2n )

Option 3. Θ( n log n )

Option 4. Θ( log n )

Select one:

a. Option 1

b. Option 2

c. Option 3

d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 1

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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

static int function ( n ) {

sum = 0;

for (i=1; i<=n; i++)

sum += n;

return sum;

}

Choice 1. Ω( n2 )

Choice 2. Ω( log n2 )

Choice 3. Θ( n log n )

Choice 4. O ( n )

(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 4

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Which of the following is NOT true for Linked Lists structures (please select the best choice):

Choice 1. Insertion and deletion are ( 1 ).

Choice 2. Direct access of an item in the list structure is ( n ).

Choice 3. Space grows with number of elements.

Choice 4. There is no overhead associated with elements in the list structure

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 4

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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

function ( n ) {

sum2 = 0;

for (i=1; i<=n; i++)

for (j=1; j<=i; j++)

sum2++;

}

}

Choice 1. Ω ( 1 )

Choice 2. O( 2n )

Choice 3. Θ( n2 )

Choice 4. Ω( n2 )

(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3

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Which of the following items is NOT true for Array-Based Lists (please select the best choice):

Choice 1. Insertion and deletion operations are ( n )

Choice 2. Direct access of an item in the array is ( 1 )

Choice 3. Space used grows dynamically as the array is populated

Choice 4. Array contains wasted space if array positions are not full

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3

Question 66

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A method that is designed to create extremely shallow trees is called:

Select one:

a. Dynamic node implementation

b. Union/Find

c. The list of children method

d. Path compression

The correct answer is: Path compression

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The process of storing blocks of data in main memory after reading from disk is referred to as:

Select one:

a. Buffering

b. Hashing

c. Pooling

d. Indexing

The correct answer is: Buffering

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A solution is said to be efficient if it:

Select one:

a. Solves the problem within the required resource constraints

b. Executes faster than other solutions

c. Is completed in the fewest number of steps

d. Can be explained in the context of Big-Oh notation

The correct answer is: Solves the problem within the required resource constraints

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A sorting algorithm that assigns records to bins and then relies on some other sorting technique to sort the records within each bin called:

Select one:

a. Radix Sort

b. Quicksort

c. Hash sort

d. Bucket sort

The correct answer is: Bucket sort

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In a stack which option would access the 3rd element from the top of the stack S

Option 1. S.push(-1);

Option 2. S.dequeue(-3);

Option 3. S.pop();

S.pop();

S.pop();

Option 4. S.pop(n-3);

Select one:

a. Option 1

b. Option 2

c. Option 3

d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 3

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A leaf is any node that:

Select one:

a. Has one child

b. Is an internal node with no ancestors

c. Is any node with two empty children

d. Is the ancestor of the root node

The correct answer is: Is any node with two empty children

Question 72

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According to textbook by Shaffer, a heap data structure has two properties which are:

Select one:

a. every node stores a value less than or equal to that of its children and it is a complete binary tree

b. it is a min-heap and is partially ordered

c. it is a complete binary tree and the values stored in it are partially ordered

d. it is a priority queue and is in Θ( n )

The correct answer is: it is a complete binary tree and the values stored in it are partially ordered

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The upper bound for the growth of the Algorithms running time is represented by:

Select one:

a. Big Oh (O)

b. Big Omega (Ω)

c. Big Theta (Θ)

d. Exponential growth

The correct answer is: Big Oh (O)

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The lower bound for the growth of the Algorithms running time is represented by (please the best answer):

1. Big Oh (O)

2. Big Omega (Ω)

3. Big Theta (Θ)

4. Exponential growth

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 2

Question 75

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The benefit of a quicksort is that it provides excellent performance in both the average and worst case:

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

Question 76

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The best asymptotic analysis for the selection sort is represented by (select the best option):

Option 1. O( n log n )

Option 2. Ω( n2 )

Option 3. O( n2 )

Option 4. Θ( n2 )

Select one:

a. Option 1

b. Option 2

c. Option 3

d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 4

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A finite set of one or more nodes such that there is one designated node call the root is a: (select the best answer)

Select one:

a. Parent root

b. a B+ tree data structure

c. Index

d. Tree

The correct answer is: Tree

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True/False: The queue data structure is implemented as FIFO structure (first in first out)

:

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

Question 79

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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

function ( n ) {

sum2 = 0;

for (k=1; k<=n; k*=2)

for (j=1; j<=k; j++)

sum2++;

}

Choice 1. O( 2n )

Choice 2. Θ ( n )

Choice 3. Θ( n log n )

Choice 4. Ω( n2 )

(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 2

Question 80

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A coding scheme that replaces repeated occurrences of strings with a pointer to the location in the file of the first occurrence of the string is called Ziv-Lempel coding.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

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In a queue, placing new items in the queue is referred to as a push and taking an item out of the queue is called a pop.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

if (a.length > 0) {

return a[a.length - 1];

} else {

throw new NoSuchElementException();

}

Option 1. O( 1 )

Option 2. O( 2n )

Option 3. O( n log n )

Option 4. O( n2 )

Select one:

a. Option 1

b. Option 2

c. Option 3

d. Option 4

Explanation: Here n = a.length, and T(n) = 1.

The correct answer is: Option 1

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Setting the dirty bit causes what action to be performed on a block: (select the best answer)

Select one:

a. It is deleted because it is no longer consistent

b. It flushes or writes the block out to the disk

c. Refreshes the data by re-reading the block

d. It cleans the cache by flushing all data from the cache

The correct answer is: It flushes or writes the block out to the disk

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Asymptotic Algorithm Analysis is primarily concerned with:

Select one:

a. The size of the constant in the algorithm running time equation

b. The speed of the computing running the algorithm

c. The speed of the compiler

d. The growth rate demonstrated in the algorithm running time equation

The correct answer is: The growth rate demonstrated in the algorithm running time equation

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Correctly identify the following heap structure by selecting the best answer:

Select one:

a. partially ordered heap

b. max-heap structure

c. priority heap

d. min-heap structure

The correct answer is: max-heap structure

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For the following code fragment, select option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

for (i=0; i<n; i++) {

//

// Search in array a for smallest element starting at i to n-1

//

minIndex = findSmallestElement(a, i, n-1)

a[i] = a[minIndex];

}

findSmallestElement( int a[], int i, int n ) {

int largest = a[i];

while(i<n) {

if(a[i] >a[largest])

largest = i;

i++;

}

return(largest);

}

Option 1. O( n )

Option 2. O( 2n )

Option 3. O( n log n )

Option 4. O( n2 )

Select one:

a. Option 1

b. Option 2

c. Option 3

d. Option 4

index-of-smallest element in a[i..j] takes j-i+1 operations

• n + (n-1) + (n-2) + (n-3) + ... + 3 + 2 + 1

• this is n2

The correct answer is: Option 4

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An algorithm that breaks a file to be sorted in smaller files called runs which are sorted and eventually put back together resulting in a sorted file is called:

Select one:

a. Quicksort algorithm

b. Replacement sort algorithm

c. An indexed key sort algorithm

d. Mergesort algorithm

The correct answer is: Mergesort algorithm

Question 88

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A list is

Select one:

a. An ADT for storing and retrieving data

b. A tree data structure

c. Finite ordered sequence of data items

d. A collection of operations to implement an ADT

The correct answer is: Finite ordered sequence of data items

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Select the answer that best defines Huffman Coding:

Select one:

a. A set of coding rules that is typically used for compression

b. A fixed length coding scheme for character representation

c. A tree structure that trades off space and time requirements to provide a more efficient priority queue

d. An approach of assigning codes to characters such that the frequency length of the code depends upon the relative frequency of the corresponding character in use

The correct answer is: An approach of assigning codes to characters such that the frequency length of the code depends upon the relative frequency of the corresponding character in use

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True/False: Big Theta (Θ) indicates that the Upper and Lower bounds of an algorithm are the same.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

Question 91

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The quicksort is typically slower than the heapsort by a constant factor.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

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Secondary storage is characterized by the following:

Select one:

a. It is persistent

b. It is faster than primary storage

c. It is volatile

d. It is more expensive than primary storage

The correct answer is: It is persistent

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A compound computed search that combines a binary search to get close to the required record and then uses sequential search to find the item is referred to as a/an:

Select one:

a. Zipf search

b. An Exact match search

c. A Dictionary search

d. bit map vector search

The correct answer is: A Dictionary search

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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

static int function ( n ) {

sum = 0;

for (i=1; i<=n; i++)

sum += n;

return sum;

}

Choice 1. Ω( n2 )

Choice 2. Θ ( n2 )

Choice 3. O( log n )

Choice 4. O( n )

(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 4

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According to the properties of logarithms, log(nm) =

Note: Due to issues with HTML formatting, an exponent is represented by preceding it with the ^ symbol. As such x^2 is equivalent to x2.

Select one:

a. log n – log m

b. n log n

c. log n + log m

d. log(n^m)

The correct answer is: log n + log m

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A characteristic of RAM (random access memory) is that it is persistent and is not lost when the power to a computer is turned off.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

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A full binary tree has a restricted shape which starts at the root and fills the tree by levels from left to right.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

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What is the role of the pivot in a quicksort algorithm?

Select one:

a. It identifies the maxkey value

b. It specifies the point where the array will be subdivided into partitions and each partition then sorted

c. It defines the sequence for merging in the sort

d. It indicates the index of the current record being compared

The correct answer is: It specifies the point where the array will be subdivided into partitions and each partition then sorted

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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

/** @return The position of an element in sorted array A with value k. If k is not in A,return A.length. */

static int binary(int[] A, int k) {

int l = -1; // Set l and r

int r = A.length; // beyond array bounds

while (l+1 != r) { // Stop when l, r meet

int i = (l+r)/2; // Check middle

if (k < A[i]) r = i; // In left half

if (k == A[i]) return i; // Found it

if (k > A[i]) l = i; // In right half

}

return A.length; // Search value not in A

}

Choice 1. Θ ( n )

Choice 2. O( 2n )

Choice 3. O( log n )

Choice 4. Ω( n2 )

(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3

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A linear index is an index file organized as a sequence of key/pointer pairs where the keys are in a sorter order.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

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The freelist …

Select one:

a. Provides access to memory within the operating system that has not yet been allocated

b. Provides access to memory objects which have no Big O ( n ) time.

c. Facilitates and encourages the use of the new operator.

d. Holds the list nodes that are no longer in use.

The correct answer is: Holds the list nodes that are no longer in use.

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A tree data structure whose shape obeys the following definition,

o A node contains one or two keys

o Every internal node has either 2 children if it contains 1 key or 3 children if it contains two keys

o All leaves are at the same level in the tree

Is called a/an:

Select one:

a. B*-Tree

b. BST

c. B+-Tree

d. 2-3 tree

The correct answer is: 2-3 tree

Question 103

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A preorder traversal visits every node starting at the leaf nodes and working up the tree.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

public E getValue ( ) {

assert (curr >= 0) && (curr < listSize) :

"No current element";

return listArray[curr];

}

Choice 1. Θ ( n )

Choice 2. O( 2n )

Choice 3. Θ( n log n )

Choice 4. O( 1 )

(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 4

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Internal Fragmentation refers to: (select the best answer)

Select one:

a. Space that is left empty because records do not fit evenly into a sector

b. Space allocated to a file that is not physically adjacent on the disk drive

c. Space that is left empty because records do not fit evenly into a sector or Space allocated to a file that is not physically adjacent

d. None of the options

The correct answer is: Space that is left empty because records do not fit evenly into a sector or Space allocated to a file that is not physically adjacent

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A binary tree traversal that lists every node in the tree exactly once is called:

Select one:

a. a Traversal

b. A visitor design pattern

c. An enumeration

d. Natural ordering sequence

The correct answer is: An enumeration

The process of associating a key with the location of a corresponding data record is called folding.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

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A characteristic of RAM (random access memory) is that it is persistent and is not lost when the power to a computer is turned off.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

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An algorithm that breaks a file to be sorted in smaller files called runs which are sorted and eventually put back together resulting in a sorted file is called:

Select one:

a. Quicksort algorithm

b. Replacement sort algorithm

c. An indexed key sort algorithm

d. Mergesort algorithm

The correct answer is: Mergesort algorithm

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The weighted union rule joins a tree with fewer nodes to a tree with more nodes by making the smaller tree’s root point to the root of the larger tree.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

for (int i = 1; i <= n; i *= 2) {

for (int j = 0; j < n; j++) {

count++;

}

}

Option 1. O( 1 )

Option 2. O( 2n )

Option 3. O( n log n )

Option 4. O( n2 )

Select one:

a. Option 1

b. Option 2

c. Option 3

d. Option 4

Explanation: Here the outer loop is done log n times and the inner loop is done n times, so T(n) = n log n. (Note that the default base for logarithms in Computer Science is 2.)

The correct answer is: Option 3

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The best asymptotic analysis for the selection sort is represented by (select the best option):

Option 1. O( n log n )

Option 2. Ω( n2 )

Option 3. O( n2 )

Option 4. Θ( n2 )

Select one:

a. Option 1

b. Option 2

c. Option 3

d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 4

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A leaf is any node that:

Select one:

a. Has one child

b. Is an internal node with no ancestors

c. Is any node with two empty children

d. Is the ancestor of the root node

The correct answer is: Is any node with two empty children

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A preorder traversal visits every node starting at the leaf nodes and working up the tree.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

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For the following code fragment, select the option which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

/** @return Position of largest value in "A“ */

static int largest(int[] A) {

int currlarge = 0; // Position of largest

for (int i=1; i<A.length; i++)

if (A[currlarge] < A[i])

currlarge = i; // Remember pos

return currlarge; // Return largest pos

}

Choice 1. Θ ( n )

Choice 2. O( 2n )

Choice 3. Θ( n log n )

Choice 4. Ω( n2 )

(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 1

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A technique that allows a programmer to use more main memory than exists in the computer is called: (select the best answer)

Select one:

a. Buffer cache

b. Random access memory

c. Secondary storage

d. Virtual memory

The correct answer is: Virtual memory

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A method that is designed to create extremely shallow trees is called:

Select one:

a. Dynamic node implementation

b. Union/Find

c. The list of children method

d. Path compression

The correct answer is: Path compression

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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

static int function ( n ) {

sum = 0;

for (j=1; j<=n; j++)

for (i=1; i<=j; i++)

sum++;

return sum;

}

Choice 1. Θ ( n )

Choice 2. O( 2n )

Choice 3. Θ( n2 )

Choice 4. Ω( n2 )

(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3

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Asymptotic Algorithm Analysis is primarily concerned with:

Select one:

a. The size of the constant in the algorithm running time equation

b. The speed of the computing running the algorithm

c. The speed of the compiler

d. The growth rate demonstrated in the algorithm running time equation

The correct answer is: The growth rate demonstrated in the algorithm running time equation

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According to the properties of logarithms, log(nm) =

Note: Due to issues with HTML formatting, an exponent is represented by preceding it with the ^ symbol. As such x^2 is equivalent to x2.

Select one:

a. log n – log m

b. n log n

c. log n + log m

d. log(n^m)

The correct answer is: log n + log m

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The process for visiting all of the nodes of a binary tree in some order is called a traversal.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

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A list is said to be empty when all of its elements have a zero (0) value

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

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A list that organizes the order of records within the list based upon patterns of actual record access is called a/an (select the best answer):

Select one:

a. Quadratic Binary search order

b. A Zipf Distribution

c. A Self-organizing list

d. A range query

The correct answer is: A Self-organizing list

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A sort that features a limit of n-1 of record swaps is called:

Select one:

a. Insertion sort

b. Bubble sort

c. Inversion sort

d. Selection sort

The correct answer is: Selection sort

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The process of storing blocks of data in main memory after reading from disk is referred to as:

Select one:

a. Buffering

b. Hashing

c. Pooling

d. Indexing

The correct answer is: Buffering

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The upper bound for the growth of the Algorithms running time is represented by:

Select one:

a. Big Oh (O)

b. Big Omega (Ω)

c. Big Theta (Θ)

d. Exponential growth

The correct answer is: Big Oh (O)

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A coding scheme that replaces repeated occurrences of strings with a pointer to the location in the file of the first occurrence of the string is called Ziv-Lempel coding.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

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In linked lists there are no NULL links in:

Select one:

a. Single linked list

b. Linear doubly linked list

c. Circular linked list

d. None of these

The correct answer is: Circular linked list

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The benefit of a quicksort is that it provides excellent performance in both the average and worst case:

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

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Internal Fragmentation refers to: (select the best answer)

Select one:

a. Space that is left empty because records do not fit evenly into a sector

b. Space allocated to a file that is not physically adjacent on the disk drive

c. Space that is left empty because records do not fit evenly into a sector or Space allocated to a file that is not physically adjacent

d. None of the options

The correct answer is: Space that is left empty because records do not fit evenly into a sector or Space allocated to a file that is not physically adjacent

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A binary tree traversal that lists every node in the tree exactly once is called:

Select one:

a. a Traversal

b. A visitor design pattern

c. An enumeration

d. Natural ordering sequence

The correct answer is: An enumeration

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Which of the following is not one of the general approaches to search algorithms:

Select one:

a. Buffer cache access methods

b. Sequential and list methods

c. Direct access by key value (hashing)

d. Tree indexing methods

The correct answer is: Buffer cache access methods

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In a queue, placing new items in the queue is referred to as a push and taking an item out of the queue is called a pop.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

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Which of the following is not a mathematical proof technique?

Select one:

a. Proof by mathematical induction

b. Proof by contradiction

c. Direct proof

d. Proof by consensus

The correct answer is: Proof by consensus

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True/False: There is always one most efficient algorithm to solve a particular problem.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

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The process of determining if two objects are in the same set and then merging those sets is called:

Select one:

a. a Union Operation

b. Union / Find

c. a Weighted Union

d. a Merge Operation

The correct answer is: Union / Find

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Data is stored within the disk drive on the: (select the best answer)

Select one:

a. Spindle

b. Platter

c. Cylinder

d. Sector

The correct answer is: Platter

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The depth of node H in the following tree is:

Select one:

a. 3

b. 2

c. 4

d. 1

The correct answer is: 3

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An ADT is:

Select one:

a. A type together with a collection of operations to manipulate the type

b. An implementation of a flyweight design pattern

c. The realization of a data type as a software component

d. An implementation in java of a class for a data type

The correct answer is: The realization of a data type as a software component

Question 34

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A full binary tree has a restricted shape which starts at the root and fills the tree by levels from left to right.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

Question 35

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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

function ( n ) {

sum1 = 0;

for (k=1; k<=n; k*=2)

for (j=1; j<=n; j++)

sum1++;

}

Choice 1. Θ ( n )

Choice 2. O( 2n )

Choice 3. Θ( n log n )

Choice 4. Ω( n2 )

(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3

Question 36

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A linked list creates order through the use of pointers that link one element to another.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

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The implementation of a data type as a data structure is the physical form of an ADT.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

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Secondary storage is characterized by the following:

Select one:

a. It is persistent

b. It is faster than primary storage

c. It is volatile

d. It is more expensive than primary storage

The correct answer is: It is persistent

Question 39

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The process of storing records in the order that they were added to a file is called:

Select one:

a. Entry-sequenced file

b. Binary Sequenced file

c. LIFO file format

d. Tombstone approach

The correct answer is: Entry-sequenced file

Question 40

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For the following code fragment, select option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

for (i=0; i<n; i++) {

//

// Search in array a for smallest element starting at i to n-1

//

minIndex = findSmallestElement(a, i, n-1)

a[i] = a[minIndex];

}

findSmallestElement( int a[], int i, int n ) {

int largest = a[i];

while(i<n) {

if(a[i] >a[largest])

largest = i;

i++;

}

return(largest);

}

Option 1. O( n )

Option 2. O( 2n )

Option 3. O( n log n )

Option 4. O( n2 )

Select one:

a. Option 1

b. Option 2

c. Option 3

d. Option 4

index-of-smallest element in a[i..j] takes j-i+1 operations

• n + (n-1) + (n-2) + (n-3) + ... + 3 + 2 + 1

• this is n2

The correct answer is: Option 4

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When big-Oh and coincide, we indicate this by using (select the best answer):

1. Big Oh (O)

2. Big Omega (Ω)

3. Big Theta (Θ)

4. Exponential growth

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3

Question 42

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Which of the following is not a characteristic of an algorithm?

Select one:

a. It must be correct

b. It must be composed of concrete steps

c. It can have no ambiguity

d. It must be composed of an infinite number of steps.

The correct answer is: It must be composed of an infinite number of steps.

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Each record of a database normally has a unique identifier called the:

Select one:

a. Secondary Key

b. Primary index

c. Primary key

d. Index key

The correct answer is: Primary key

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Which of the following is NOT one of the buffer pool heuristics defined in the text : (select the best answer)

Select one:

a. FIFO

b. LIFO

c. LRU

d. LFU

The correct answer is: LIFO

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A collection of one or more trees is called:

Select one:

a. Trees

b. Multiple Spanning Trees

c. a Forest

d. Traversals

The correct answer is: a Forest

Question 46

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Enqueue and Dequeue are notations associated with which data structure:

Select one:

a. Queue

b. Stack

c. List

d. Array

The correct answer is: Queue

Question 47

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A traversal that visits each node after visiting its children is called:

Select one:

a. Preorder Traversal

b. Postorder Traversal

c. Inorder Traversal

d. Outoforder Traversal

The correct answer is: Postorder Traversal

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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

function ( n ) {

sum2 = 0;

for (k=1; k<=n; k*=2)

for (j=1; j<=k; j++)

sum2++;

}

Choice 1. O( 2n )

Choice 2. Θ ( n )

Choice 3. Θ( n log n )

Choice 4. Ω( n2 )

(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 2

Question 49

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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

public static int binarySearch(int[] a, int key) {

int left = 0;

int right = a.length-1;

while (left <= right) {

int mid = left + (right-left)/2;

if (key < a[mid]) right = mid-1;

else if (key > a[mid]) left = mid+1;

else return mid;

}

//not found

return -1;

}

Option 1. Ω( 1 ), O( log n )

Option 2. Ω( n ), O( 2n )

Option 3. Θ( n log n )

Option 4. Θ( log n )

Select one:

a. Option 1

b. Option 2

c. Option 3

d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 1

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The processing time or cost of a sort is defined by the number of comparisons and exchanges that must be made during processing. What is the average cost of the heapsort?:

Option 1. O( n log n )

Option 2. Ω( n2 )

Option 3. O( n2 )

Option 4. Θ( n2 )

Select one:

a. Option 1

b. Option 2

c. Option 3

d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 1

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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

public E getValue ( ) {

assert (curr >= 0) && (curr < listSize) :

"No current element";

return listArray[curr];

}

Choice 1. Θ ( n )

Choice 2. O( 2n )

Choice 3. Θ( n log n )

Choice 4. O( 1 )

(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 4

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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

// Recursive Fibonacci generator

static long fibr(int n) {

if ((n == 1) || (n == 2)) return 1; // Base case

return fibr(n-1) + fibr(n-2); // Recursive call

}

Option 1. O( n )

Option 2. O( 2n )

Option 3. O( n log n )

Option 4. O( n2 )

Select one:

a. Option 1

b. Option 2

c. Option 3

d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 2

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True/False: Big Theta (Θ) indicates that the Upper and Lower bounds of an algorithm are the same.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

static int function ( n ) {

for (k=0; k<n; k++)

A[k] = k;

return A[k];

}

Choice 1. O ( n2 )

Choice 2. O( 2n )

Choice 3. Ω( n2 )

Choice 4. Θ ( n )

(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 4

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The freelist …

Select one:

a. Provides access to memory within the operating system that has not yet been allocated

b. Provides access to memory objects which have no Big O ( n ) time.

c. Facilitates and encourages the use of the new operator.

d. Holds the list nodes that are no longer in use.

The correct answer is: Holds the list nodes that are no longer in use.

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Which of the following is NOT true for Linked Lists structures (please select the best choice):

Choice 1. Insertion and deletion are ( 1 ).

Choice 2. Direct access of an item in the list structure is ( n ).

Choice 3. Space grows with number of elements.

Choice 4. There is no overhead associated with elements in the list structure

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 4

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A sort algorithm that uses two nested loops with the inner loop moving through the array from bottom to top is called the:

Select one:

a. Insertion sort

b. Bubble sort

c. Inversion sort

d. Selection sort

The correct answer is: Bubble sort

Question 58

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For the following code fragment, select the option which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

static int function ( n ) {

sum = 0;

for (i=1; i<=n; i++)

sum += n;

return sum;

}

Option 1. Ω( n2 )

Option 2. Θ ( n )

Option 3. O( log n )

Option 4. O( 2n )

(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 2

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A list is

Select one:

a. An ADT for storing and retrieving data

b. A tree data structure

c. Finite ordered sequence of data items

d. A collection of operations to implement an ADT

The correct answer is: Finite ordered sequence of data items

Question 60

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Push and Pop are notations associated with which data structure:

Select one:

a. Queue

b. Stack

c. List

d. Array

The correct answer is: Stack

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A tree whose internal nodes all have exactly K children is called a K-ary tree.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

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A compound computed search that combines a binary search to get close to the required record and then uses sequential search to find the item is referred to as a/an:

Select one:

a. Zipf search

b. An Exact match search

c. A Dictionary search

d. bit map vector search

The correct answer is: A Dictionary search

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Correctly identify the following heap structure by selecting the best answer:

Select one:

a. partially ordered heap

b. max-heap structure

c. priority heap

d. min-heap structure

The correct answer is: max-heap structure

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A traversal that visits each node before visiting its children is called:

Select one:

a. Preorder traversal

b. Postorder traversal

c. Inorder Traversal

d. Outoforder Traversal

The correct answer is: Preorder traversal

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A tree data structure whose shape obeys the following definition,

o A node contains one or two keys

o Every internal node has either 2 children if it contains 1 key or 3 children if it contains two keys

o All leaves are at the same level in the tree

Is called a/an:

Select one:

a. B*-Tree

b. BST

c. B+-Tree

d. 2-3 tree

The correct answer is: 2-3 tree

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Select the answer that best defines Huffman Coding:

Select one:

a. A set of coding rules that is typically used for compression

b. A fixed length coding scheme for character representation

c. A tree structure that trades off space and time requirements to provide a more efficient priority queue

d. An approach of assigning codes to characters such that the frequency length of the code depends upon the relative frequency of the corresponding character in use

The correct answer is: An approach of assigning codes to characters such that the frequency length of the code depends upon the relative frequency of the corresponding character in use

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A significant benefit to using an index to hold and sort keys to a file is:

Select one:

a. Smaller keys require less I/O

b. The entire sort can always be completed in memory

c. The head of the disk drive does not need to move

d. There is no seek time added to the latency of I/O operations

The correct answer is: Smaller keys require less I/O

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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

static int function ( n ) {

sum = 0;

for (i=1; i<=n; i++)

sum += n;

return sum;

}

Choice 1. Ω( n2 )

Choice 2. Θ ( n2 )

Choice 3. O( log n )

Choice 4. O( n )

(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 4

Question 69

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The most time consuming of the following operations on an array based list implementation is:

Select one:

a. Inserting a new element at position n-1 in the list where n is the number of elements in the list.

b. Inserting a new element into the head of the list.

c. Removing an element at position n-1 within the list

d. Removing an element from the tail of the list.

The correct answer is: Inserting a new element into the head of the list.

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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

static int function ( n ) {

sum = 0;

for (i=1; i<=n; i++)

sum += n;

return sum;

}

Choice 1. Ω( n2 )

Choice 2. Ω( log n2 )

Choice 3. Θ( n log n )

Choice 4. O ( n )

(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 4

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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

function ( n ) {

sum1 = 0;

for (i=1; i<=n; i++)

for (j=1; j<=n; j++)

sum1++;

}

Choice 1. Θ ( n2 )

Choice 2. O( 2n )

Choice 3. Θ( n log n )

Choice 4. Ω( log n2 )

(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 1

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A linked list implementation relies upon static memory allocation where static refers to the requirement to pre-allocate all of the memory that will be used for the list.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

Question 73

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A sorting algorithm that assigns records to bins and then relies on some other sorting technique to sort the records within each bin called:

Select one:

a. Radix Sort

b. Quicksort

c. Hash sort

d. Bucket sort

The correct answer is: Bucket sort

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True/False: The stack data structure is implemented as a LIFO structure (last in first out)

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

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True/False: The queue data structure is implemented as FIFO structure (first in first out)

:

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

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Recursion is when an algorithm uses a series of loop structures to repeat an operation until the answer has been computed.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

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Which of the following is NOT one of the design patterns outlined in our text.

Select one:

a. Flyweight

b. Visitor

c. Composite

d. Synergy

The correct answer is: Synergy

Question 78

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In a stack which option would access the 3rd element from the top of the stack S

Option 1. S.push(-1);

Option 2. S.dequeue(-3);

Option 3. S.pop();

S.pop();

S.pop();

Option 4. S.pop(n-3);

Select one:

a. Option 1

b. Option 2

c. Option 3

d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 3

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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

/** @return The position of an element in sorted array A with value k. If k is not in A,return A.length. */

static int binary(int[] A, int k) {

int l = -1; // Set l and r

int r = A.length; // beyond array bounds

while (l+1 != r) { // Stop when l, r meet

int i = (l+r)/2; // Check middle

if (k < A[i]) r = i; // In left half

if (k == A[i]) return i; // Found it

if (k > A[i]) l = i; // In right half

}

return A.length; // Search value not in A

}

Choice 1. Θ ( n )

Choice 2. O( 2n )

Choice 3. O( log n )

Choice 4. Ω( n2 )

(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3

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A traversal that visits the left subtree, then the node, and then the right subtree is called:

Select one:

a. Preorder Traversal

b. Postorder Traversal

c. Inorder Traversal

d. Outoforder Traversal

The correct answer is: Inorder Traversal

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Inserting or removing an item at position n-1 within a linked list has the same cost in terms ( n ) time as the same operation in an array based implementation of a list.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

if (a.length > 0) {

return a[a.length - 1];

} else {

throw new NoSuchElementException();

}

Option 1. O( 1 )

Option 2. O( 2n )

Option 3. O( n log n )

Option 4. O( n2 )

Select one:

a. Option 1

b. Option 2

c. Option 3

d. Option 4

Explanation: Here n = a.length, and T(n) = 1.

The correct answer is: Option 1

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The most significant difference between the B+-Tree and the BST is that the B+-Tree stores records only at the leaf nodes.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

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According to textbook by Shaffer, a heap data structure has two properties which are:

Select one:

a. every node stores a value less than or equal to that of its children and it is a complete binary tree

b. it is a min-heap and is partially ordered

c. it is a complete binary tree and the values stored in it are partially ordered

d. it is a priority queue and is in Θ( n )

The correct answer is: it is a complete binary tree and the values stored in it are partially ordered

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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

static int function ( n ) {

for (k=0; k<n; k++)

A[k] = k;

return A[k];

}

Choice 1. Θ ( n log n )

Choice 2. O( 2n )

Choice 3. O( n )

Choice 4. Ω( n2 )

(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3

Question 86

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A linear index is an index file organized as a sequence of key/pointer pairs where the keys are in a sorter order.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

Question 87

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An exchange sort is one where: (select the best answer)

Select one:

a. Records in an unsorted list are moved to a sorted list

b. Adjacent records in the list and compared and exchanged

c. An inversion is executed

d. The sorting algorithm is said to be stable

The correct answer is: Adjacent records in the list and compared and exchanged

Question 88

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What is the role of the pivot in a quicksort algorithm?

Select one:

a. It identifies the maxkey value

b. It specifies the point where the array will be subdivided into partitions and each partition then sorted

c. It defines the sequence for merging in the sort

d. It indicates the index of the current record being compared

The correct answer is: It specifies the point where the array will be subdivided into partitions and each partition then sorted

Question 89

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If A={1, 2, 3, 4} and B={4, 5, 6}, find A∪ B .

Select one:

a. {1,2,3,4,4,5,6}

b. {4}

c. {x | x is all positive integers}

d. {1,2,3,4,5,6}

The correct answer is: {1,2,3,4,5,6}

Question 90

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Setting the dirty bit causes what action to be performed on a block: (select the best answer)

Select one:

a. It is deleted because it is no longer consistent

b. It flushes or writes the block out to the disk

c. Refreshes the data by re-reading the block

d. It cleans the cache by flushing all data from the cache

The correct answer is: It flushes or writes the block out to the disk

Question 91

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Which of the following items is NOT true for Array-Based Lists (please select the best choice):

Choice 1. Insertion and deletion operations are ( n )

Choice 2. Direct access of an item in the array is ( 1 )

Choice 3. Space used grows dynamically as the array is populated

Choice 4. Array contains wasted space if array positions are not full

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3

Question 92

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The lower bound for the growth of the Algorithms running time is represented by (please the best answer):

1. Big Oh (O)

2. Big Omega (Ω)

3. Big Theta (Θ)

4. Exponential growth

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 2

Question 93

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A sequential tree can be represented using a bit vector?

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

Question 94

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The list of children approach uses both pointers and an array structure to represent the tree.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

Question 95

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The upper bound for the growth of the Algorithms running time is represented by (please select the best answer):

1. Big Oh (O)

2. Big Omega (Ω)

3. Big Theta (Θ)

4. Exponential growth

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 1

Question 96

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A traversal of a general tree that traverses the roots subtrees from left to right, then visits the root is called a preorder traversal.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

Question 97

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For the following code fragment, select the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

// Towers of Hanoi

static void solveHanoi(int disks, char fromPole, char toPole, char withPole) {

if (disks >= 1) {

solveHanoi(disks-1, fromPole, withPole, toPole);

moveDisk(fromPole, toPole);

solveHanoi(disks-1, withPole, toPole, fromPole);

}

}

static void moveDisk(char fromPole, char toPole) {

moves++;

}

Option 1. O( n )

Option 2. O( 2n )

Option 3. O( n log n )

Option 4. O( n2 )

Select one:

a. Option 1

b. Option 2

c. Option 3

d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 2

Question 98

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The full binary tree theorem states “the number of leaves in an empty full binary tree is one more than the number of internal nodes”

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

Question 99

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The quicksort is typically slower than the heapsort by a constant factor.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'False'.

Question 100

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A sort where the list is divided into halves, the halves sorted and these two halves are merged is called:

Select one:

a. Mergesort

b. Binary sort

c. Quicksort

d. Heapsort

The correct answer is: Mergesort

Question 101

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An important advantage of the sequential tree implementation is that (select the best answer):

Select one:

a. It is an extremely shallow tree

b. The data structure can be transmitted between computers

c. It saves space because no pointers are stored

d. It uses dynamic nodes

The correct answer is: It saves space because no pointers are stored

Question 102

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True/False: Big Theta (Θ) indicates that the Upper and Lower bounds of an algorithm are the same.

Select one:

True

False

The correct answer is 'True'.

Question 103

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A solution is said to be efficient if it:

Select one:

a. Solves the problem within the required resource constraints

b. Executes faster than other solutions

c. Is completed in the fewest number of steps

d. Can be explained in the context of Big-Oh notation

The correct answer is: Solves the problem within the required resource constraints

Question 104

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A finite set of one or more nodes such that there is one designated node call the root is a: (select the best answer)

Select one:

a. Parent root

b. a B+ tree data structure

c. Index

d. Tree

The correct answer is: Tree

Question 105

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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

for (int i = 0; i < a.length; i++) {

System.out.println(a[i]);

}

Option 1. O( n )

Option 2. O( 2n )

Option 3. O( n log n )

Option 4. O( n2 )

Select one:

a. Option 1

b. Option 2

c. Option 3

d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 1

Question 106

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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:

function ( n ) {

sum2 = 0;

for (i=1; i<=n; i++)

for (j=1; j<=i; j++)

sum2++;

}

}

Choice 1. Ω ( 1 )

Choice 2. O( 2n )

Choice 3. Θ( n2 )

Choice 4. Ω( n2 )

(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:

a. Choice 1

b. Choice 2

c. Choice 3

d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3

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